In some cases, children who are born with low birth weight experience more difficulty to cope up with their health and later on develop challenging behaviors. Also, these type of children often display hyperactivity, lack of attention, unassertiveness and withdrawn behavior (Hack et al, 1995) as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association (2002, p. 5). Various forms of allergies also produce behaviors that are difficult to control such as talkativeness and irritability. In relation with this is the disposition of children who has been hospitalized.
Since they usually stay inside the hospital, and are far away from their peers and family, they tend to be irritable and also found it hard to cope with their situation Michigan Non Profit Association (2002, p. 5). Also, children with sleeping disorders who find it hard difficult to sleep at night often tend to be irritated at the morning. In some marginalized areas, the exposure to lead that usually come from old paints has also impacted their cognitive development (Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 5). Conclusion
The Center for Evidence Based Practice (2007) defined challenging behavior as any repeated pattern of behavior, or perception of behavior that interferes with or is at risk of interfering with optimal learning or engagement in pro-social interactions with peers and adults. In relation with this, Emerson (1995) has added the role of culture on a development of a so-called abnormal behavior. Also, the element of success in school and other academic related activity was also cited by Grady (2007) as significantly related on the notion of challenging behavior.
Environmental factors that cause challenging behavior among children includes maternal depression, parental illness, separation or divorce, poor housing and poverty, parental management techniques and parental history. Parenting factors range from diet and nutrition, relationship with parental figures, tight schedules of working parents, early parenthood, kinship care, foster care, child abuse and neglect (Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p3-4).
The first child factor that was found out to be the source of challenging Behavior is Temperament (Douglas, 1989, p. 3). Bates 1980 as cited from Douglas (1989, p. 3-4) have defined temperament as having a constitutional basis, in addition, such a behavior is perceived to appear even in early childhood, and could even persist on the latter part of ones life. In addition, it is perceived as to be one of the definable characteristics of the individual and finally, is greatly affected by the environment.
The child mental health factors are comprised of: sensory integration, emotional regulation, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional Disorder (ODD) and Autism (Michigan Non Profit Association, 2002, p. 6). The role of Language Development and its relationship to problematic behavior is pioneered by Stevenson et al (1985) as cited from Douglas (1989, p. 6-7) Michigan Non Profit Organization (p. 7). The study revealed that children who appears to have poor language capabilities at 3 years of age has a high degree of probability to express neurotic behaviors when he or she turns to 8.
The biological factors that may have caused challenging behaviors are caused by several factors, and one of which is the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) which is primarily the outcome of a pregnant womans exposure to alcohol. More importantly, the FAS is proved to be the cause of the major developmental problems in 1% of births. A so-called Fetal Alcohol Effect (FAE) is perceived to be present on over 50,000 infants (National, n. d. ) as cited from Michigan Non Profit Association (2002, p. 5).