B) The cause of the leukocytosis is that there is an increase in the production of white blood cells and in this case it is the level of lymphocytes that are elevated. The bone marrow is making too many white blood cells. There is an abnormality in the bone marrow concerning the production of white blood cells and too many are released in the blood.
C) The cause of the thrombocytopenia is due to a low platelet count. The bone marrow is making enough platelets to keep up with the ones being lost.
D) The cause of anemia is due to a decreased red blood cell production by the bone marrow. The red blood cells are being destroyed faster than the bone marrow can replace them. The bone marrow is being over exerted.
2. Cephalosporin is used to treat infections caused by bacteria. She will exhibit her skin bruising easily, fatigue, nose bleeds and general weakness http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/thcp/thcp_signs.html
3. People with advanced kidney disease commonly become anemic because the kidneys produce EPO(Erythropoietin) which helps the bone marrow make red blood cells. When they are diagnosed with kidney disease the kidneys do not make enough EPO and therefore the bone marrow makes less red blood cells causing anemia. http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/expect/
4. A decrease in plasma protein would cause swelling in legs, loss of appetite, excessive urination, headache and jaundice of the skin. A disorder that could cause these effects would be liver disease.
5. The kidneys are used to regulate blood volume and also the hematocrit. Restricted blood flow will cause an increase in the hematocrit. Low blood pressure causes an increase in hematocrit.
6. Total bilirubin would be increased in a person that has liver damage.
7. The type of white blood cell that would be in great numbers in an infected cut would be a neutrophil. They are produced in the bone marrow. They are fast acting and arrive at the site of an infection within a hour. They kill pathogens by phagocytosis.
8. Leukocytes also known as white blood cells would be elevated in a person who is combating a virus. Leukocytes defend your body against infections. http://www.buzzle.com/articles/leukocytes-white-blood-cells.html
9. Vitamin K aids in blood clotting. Prolonged use of antibiotics can kill the bacteria in the intestines and cause a deficiency in vitamin K. A vitamin K deficiency can lead to bleeding.
10. Having few megakaryocytes would reveal that this person is likely to be having a low platelet count resulting in anemia.
11. Fetal hemoglobin is able to bind to oxygen with greater liking than adult. The fetus has better access to oxygen from mothers blood. Fetal hemoglobin last about 6 months after the child is born and is taken over by adult hemoglobin. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetal_hemoglobin
12. Febrile non-hemolytic reaction is most common. It is usually caused by cytokines. It is associated with fever and there is no real lasting side effects. Acute hemolytic reaction is a real serious emergency. It occurs when the person is destroying the donors red blood cells. It is usually caused by giving wrong blood during a transfusion. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transfusion_reaction
13. When a Rh negative person is first exposed to Rh positive blood a first time the body builds antibodies like it is something foreign. The second time the person is exposed to Rh positive blood the body is going to attack it. It has built up antibodies against the Rh factor.
14. My diagnosis is that she has Cushings Disease. There is a tumor in the pituitary gland. The tumor is caused by the adrenal glands, which are making too much of the hormone cortisol.
15. 1) The primary disorder of this person is Iron Deficiency Anemia. There is too little iron in the body.
2) The ferrous sulfate and ferrous gluconate is necessary because it is a type of iron. It will help the body get back to its normal limit of iron.
3) Some dietary suggestions would be to eat fish, meat mainly liver, fortified cereals and bread because they are all good sources of iron.
16. 1) The disorder of this person is polycythemia Vera. If the EPO levels were increased it would indicate something else and if the arterial oxygen level was high it would indicate something else as well.
2) Phlebotomy will help correct this problem because by removing so much blood over a course of time it will reduce the number of red blood cells and reduce the blood volume so blood can function normal.
3) Myelosuppressive therapy may be needed because phlebotomy may not be enough to correct the problem. The bone marrows ability to make red blood cells is being suppressed.
4) The BUN and Creatinine rule out renal or kidney failure.
5) Albumin, ALT, AST, and Bilirubin indicate possible liver problems. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/polycythemia-vera/DS00919
Blood Vessel Histology
1) An artery is an elastic and muscular blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. There is one exception, the pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs so they can get oxygen ad remove carbon dioxide. Blood is delivered to the arterioles and capillaries trough the systemic arteries. There are three types of arteries. The elastic artery which allows the arteries to stretch. The muscular artery is the most common. There are little or no elastic fibers. They are very strong but not flexible. The arterioles are the smallest of the arteries. They are very important in blood pressure control. The aorta is an elastic artery and is the largest artery in the body. It delivers blood to all parts of the body. The aorta is divided into five sections the descending, ascending, aortic arch, thoracic aorta and the abdominal aorta.
2) The capillaries are the smallest blood vessels. They have only a tunica intima. They are very fragile and easily destroyed. They have no smooth muscle. The continuous capillaries are the strongest and do not leak. They are found mostly in muscle. Fenestrated capillaries are found in the kidney, pancreas and intestine and are leaky. Sinusoidal capillaries are very leaky and have many pore openings. They are located mainly in the spleen, liver and bone marrow. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capillaries
3) The vein carry blood toward the heart. Veins act as a blood reservoir. There is a low pressure in the veins and they have a thin wall. There is a muscular pump which the veins are placed between skeletal muscle. When the vein is squeezed blood is returned to the heart. The respiratory pump involves the diaphragm. Vein consist of three parts. The tunica externa which is made up of connective tissue and nerves. The tunica media is composed of smooth muscle and the tunica intima is composed of simple squamous. Veins also have valves to prevent blood from flowing the wrong way. http://www.blobs.org/science/article.php?article=54#4
4) The arterioles are the smallest of the blood vessels. They extend from an artery and lead to a capillary. They have only little muscle mass and contain smooth muscle. They carry blood away from the heart as well. They are very important in blood pressure regulation. They change size to keep up with the flow of blood. http://highbloodpressure.about.com/od/highbloodpressure101/p/circ_art3.htm
5) Atherosclerosis is when plaque build up inside an artery and causes a blockage. It is caused by damage to the endothelium. Cholesterol starts to stick, smooth muscle grows abnormally, calcium starts to stick and gets stuck in plaque causing it to get hard. The plaque can rupture and cause blood clots. If the plaque breaks it can move in the blood and cause a heart attack or a stroke depending on where the blockage is. It is a slow progressive disease. http://www.americanheart.org/presenter.jhtml?identifier=4440