The developed nations concerned saves her pounds and dollars on professional education and training and in the process obtains the services of trained doctors/ engineers who/earn very much more than their native counter parts and have more comfortable styles of living. There have been several efforts to define the concept of brain drain, mainly by international organisations. For example, we can read the following in a 1969 UNESCO report ¦.the brain drain could be defined as an abnormal form of scientific exchange between countries, characterized by a one- way flow in favour of the most highly developed countries. One of the most comprehensive report the main characteristics of brain drain as follows:
a) There are numerous flows of skilled and trained persons from developing to developed countries; b) They are characterised by large flows from a comparatively small number of developed countries and by small flows from a larger number of developing countries; c) In these flows engineers, medical personnel and scientists usually tend to predominate; d) The above flows have grown with increasing rapidity in recent years f) The flows respond increasingly to the changed g) The migratory trends are stimulated both by the character of national educational systems by lack and inadequate planning for the training of students from developing countries, in developed states as well as the proper utilisation of their-skills in their home country; and h) Except possibly for south America, there are no signs that the migration of talents is decreasing and there are fairly definite signs that its increase will, under present conditions, continue to accelerate.
Types of brain drain
Organizational: The flight of talented, creative, and highly trained employees from large corporations”e.g. Yahoo,HubSpot,and Microsoft” that occurs when employees perceive the direction and leadership of the company to be unstable or stagnant, and thus, unable to keep up with their personal and professional ambitions. Geographical: The flight of highly trained individuals and college graduates from their area of residence, for instance, those migrating from the mid-western United States to the coastal states and large metropolises. Industrial: The movement of traditionally skilled workers from one sector of an industry to another. For example, jobs in the United States and other governments, also known as the public sector, have experienced significant generational brain drain as tenured boomer generation employees retire. Heightened competition for talent from the private sector and budgetary constraints have made it increasingly difficult to attract replacements for these retirees.