Critical Architecture Issues Essay

Published: 2020-01-30 04:21:03
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The principles of design and ornamentation in construction of buildings built with esthetics. Every area of the world has got its different architectural designs based on many factors which include climate, set of requirements, culture, heritage, and many other relative factors. Banister Fletcher in his book, A History of Architecture, defines many aspects of architecture with respect to the different parts of the world. The temple of Apollo lays in Greece, hence effects of Greek culture and ornamentation is depicted on its architectural design.

This temple is situated in Bassai and its architecture has been explored and analyzed by Carl Haller and Charles Crockerell. They put the architectural blocks to be sculpted for a centaur. They made other things too like Ionic friezes sculptured beautifully, big statues, sculptured skulls, etc. These noble collections were afterwards purchased by British Museum when the temple was cleared (Cooper, Kelly and Madigan 1992). The Doric style was there in every of the sculptures there and the design and adornment of the building.

The Greek architecture has Doric order and Ionic order in terms of classical Greek architecture (Fletcher and Cruikshank 1996). The Doric order and Ionic order is the temple designing orders. In Bassae, the temple of Apollo had both orders of design. The Doric friezes used to be applied there in Bassae and restrained in it the marble metopes carving. The frieze blocks are the adorned sculptured designs which are carved in the form of slots cut. These marble metopes are carved in the entablature of this part only.

Banister Fletcher argues if the ionic columns are taken into discussion, the ionic columns have specific lower diameters and the height is nine to ten times the lower diameter. Arises are flattened enough for about a separation of twenty-four flutes. These columns in the south of Greece have twenty flutes separation (Fletcher and Cruikshank 1996). In comparison to that Janina K. Darling asserts in Architecture of Greece that the temple is small almost forty-seven feet wide and one hundred and twenty five feet long and is built with confined brittle limestone, therefore all the adornments and sculptures are done by the marble frieze.

For columns, she says that inner part of the temple has a boundary of single layer of columns referred as cella where the statues are placed at porch (Darling 2004). As far as the external architecture is concerned, the entrance or porches are crossed by the Doric friezes; the porches architecture integration into the temple is another major aspect. The porches are made up of seven blocks of marble in the Doric frieze. This design of porch is the same on all four sides of the temple (Fletcher and Cruikshank 1996).

Both Janina and Sir Banister are agreed on the fact that this temple has a Doric order applied on the porch where there are three steps while in other kinds of buildings the number of these steps may vary (Darling 2004). Sir Banister Fletchers A History of Architecture reveals about the design and entablature of different kinds of buildings and for the temple of Apollo he says that the building has Doric and ionic orders of construction as they had been the most famous Greek designs for a temple. His analysis about the evolution says that the Doric column has no base and it stands on a porch typically with three stairs.

Previously the columns used to be trimmed but as the time passed it gained some thickness. The height of those columns used to be only four times the diameter (Fletcher and Cruikshank 1996). Talking about the shaft Banister said that the shaft is kept circular with reduced top for about three-fourth to two-third the base and the division of about twenty trivial flutes and a separation of arrises. The shafts are convex by nature and straight columns produce them. This is also referred as entasis. Hypo-trachelion has three grooves which are supposed to be the end-point of shaft.

Echinus is three or four times occurrence of horizontal files they stop the vertical lines coming into the shaft by the flutes or channels. Echinus has a very interesting part that it shows a discrepancy with the age of a building (Fletcher and Cruikshank 1996). Banister explains the architecture in three main parts a principle beam, frieze, and cornice. About the ionic order of design Banister said that Greek architecture uses different types of base, mainly the eastern Greece. Two pairs of coils having height of two-third the length of diameter have one pair on the front and another on the back. A concave stifle joins both of them.

The architectural adornment has loads of beads, fillets, flutes and ornamental designs. An echinus here is holds the scroll with circular sketch and carved and molded with egg-and-dart. Volute coil is preceded by an abacus. Canted angle coil was used when a building with rectangular shape used to hurdle an ionic capital (Fletcher and Cruikshank 1996). The temple of Apollo at Bassae also used this order and became an icon in itself for being an exceptional Classic Greek architecture which gained great popularity in Hellenistic era. According to Banister the evolution of Ionic order stepped up many arenas of triumphs.

This order had two main parts architrave and cornice. It had a very subtle relation with columns. The height was one-sixth in the height. The ionic architrave had three fasciae used to be headed by two moulds. Band of sculptures embellishes the frieze normally (Fletcher and Cruikshank 1996). Although in comparison to the Banister definitions about the temple art of architecture Janina K. Darling has her own thoughts and analysis. According to her, temple of Apollo is unconventional in many facets. Temple of Apollo used to face north, unlike other temples that face east. The temple has edges with apparently extra columns on a narrow plan.

Her point of view about cella or internal architecture of the temple is that the adornments in the inner part of the temple used to look really exclusive (Darling 2004). The orders used for the architectural design are unconventional which makes it unique in front of the other designs of that time. About the temple of Apollo Janina shares that the construction of Bassae temple of Apollo was constructed in two halves. Stiffed walls of cella the internal part, exterior columns or partition, the adornment of interior of the cella, roof decor, and the fixation of sculpture was added around more than four hundred and twenty (Darling 2004).

Comparatively this temple had small statistics for the size mentioned above. It had confined limestone which was not used because sculptors were finding it difficult to carve. Marble is a material that is perfect for carving. For this reason, marble was imported to adorn the temple with beads, fillets and sculptural designing. Being a Doric order of design it had to have three stairs. Cella i. e. inner temple used single columns file (Darling 2004). The exterior of the temple of Apollo using the Doric order i. e. the design of West Greece, building used thirteen to fifteen edges bounded with six columns ahead and at the back.

Without having any base at all, Janina tells that temple building had columns approaching the height of nineteen feet probably. These columns had vertical flutes to cut the surface. The inner temple was splendid in its own way. Cella has used the ionic order of architecture (Darling 2004). Doric being very intense order was used in exteriors to provide a stronger obvious look in comparison with the cella. The use of half columns is mentioned in Janinas work explains that the series of rectangular slots next to flank walls are being originated by the spur walls.

Half columns five in number are joining these spur walls to flank walls. The look of this ionic design is like a crown heading those half columns representing all three sides. Now this is to make sure that the view from outside is proper enough and uniform from every side (Darling 2004). This shows that the architecture is the same but what we infer from our analysis can cause difference in analysis. Janina and Sir Banister have overviewed the architecture of temple of Apollo in a very effective manner.

From both the analysis a subtle downside is visible which includes the import of marble. Marble provides a better platform for carving and designing. Greeks could use limestone easily but due to its brittle nature Greeks had to import the marble all the way from other countries which would have charged even more. Another thing is the amalgamation of arts and culture. Greeks considered them a great nation and this way they did not want to mix them up with any other culture therefore they did not take unique ideas from the art of other cultures.

This act made them stagnant and unable to grow and show creativity by fusing more than two architectural artifacts. Besides, the temple of Apollo is a symbolic of true Greek art and architecture where there is a specific type associated for the construction of temples sort of buildings.


Cooper, F. A. , N. J. Kelly, and B. C. Madigan. The Temple of Apollo Bassitas. New Jersey: Millard Meiss Publications, 1992. Darling, J. K. Architecture of Greece. Greenwood Press, 2004. Fletcher, B. , and D. Cruikshank. A History of Architecture. Architectural Press, 1996.

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