The approach to the sustainability of events, especially as this would lead to the formation of an industry, would then become integral to the management requirements of this practice. Across the world, the management of events would become a more formal approach in organizing festivals and other festivities. Bowdin, et al. therefore presented the following definition of events as follows (14): [¦] anything which happens; result; any incidence or occurrence esp (sic) a memorable one; contingency or possibility of occurrence; an item in a programme (of sports, etc.);
A type of horseriding competition, often held over three days (three-day event) consisting of three sections ie dressage, cross country riding and show jumping; fortune or fate (obs); an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraising. Based on these definitions, the events that fall under event management are applicable in all aspects. Basically, the last definitiion, an organized activity at a particular venue, eg. for sales promotion or fundraising (14) can be said to already encompass what an event is.
However, it should be also noted that the fundamentals of events management also refers to the uniqueness of the event, hence, it is memorable. At the same time, an event may have many sub-events such as items. Last but not the least, as based on the cited definition, an event also includes contingency or possibility of occurrence. This therefore brings up the aspect of events management in which case it is not just about ensuring that the event takes place, but also the management formalises the event in a sense that it is defined by a specific strategy.
As previously mentioned, an event in the events management context becomes a project; in this case, the aspects of project management is applied. It is initially important to define what a project is, and according to Bowdin, et al, (267), an event as a project produces an asset [¦] the asset is the ultimate deliverable of the project. The management is the planning, the organizing, leading, and controlling of the project. Hence, based on these, Bowdin, et al. presented the definition of event management in the following (267):
The project management of events concentrates on the management process to create the event, not just what happens at the event [¦] (it) is called the overlay as it integrates all the tasks of management. Event management is made up of a number of management areas including planning, leading, marketing, design, control and budgeting, risk management, logistics, staging and evaluation. Each of these areas continuously affect each other over the event life cycle.
Shone and Parry, furthermore, mentioned that in order for an event to be managed in a similar context, the event has to be special; based on this, the authors presented the following pointing out the definitions of events that are managed: ¢ Leisure events (leisure, sport recreation) ¢ Personal events (weddings, birthdays, anniversaries) ¢ organisational events (commercial, political, charitable, sales) ¢ cultural (ceremonial, sacred, heritage, art, folklore) The Events Management Concept and Practice Event management is therefore a discipline and a practice.
There are many concepts and aspects of event management that needs to be considered especially among those who specialise in certain components of the practice. One of the common perceptions of event management is its dimension as a coordinating activities. Silvers (28) mentioned that in event coordination, the coordinators visualise, organise and synchronise the different elements of an event. In addition, in event coordination, the coordinator also identifies the purpose, scope and the program of the event by means of identifying its intent, extent, and content.
Another important point raised by Silvers (28) is that, in agreement with the past discussions on the nature of event management as similar or related to project management, the author also further mentioned the processes involved both in the coordination and the management of events. These aspects, for instance, is through the discussion on the Project Scope (28-29): ¢ Identifying the needs and requirements of the event including the definition of its purpose and the expected outcomes ¢ the description of the product as spelled out by the type of event
¢ product analysis or the identification of the components of the product ¢ the feasibility of the product as based on the analysis of the resources From these, the event becomes more definite through the design of a Work Breakdown Structure and Activity Schedule (29). Another important approach in event management can be considered in the perceptions of the customers, competition and the sponsors. Silvers discussed the aspect of the consumers and the competition. According to the author, the customers make up the marketing realm of the event (30).
Hence, it is important to identify a target segment because this helps in the design of the event, from its scope to its marketing to its implementation. Silvers also discussed the competition; for cases such as bars and clubs, any weekend night poses a great amount of competition for any establishment holding an event that night. As the author stressed, it is significant that the bar or club is aware what kind of other events that will take place in another establishment. It is therefore in the strategy of the club or bar owner, along with its hired events specialist, to determine how to best approach competition.