Democratic Change in Developing Countries Essay

Published: 2020-02-15 09:41:44
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Category: Countries

Type of paper: Essay

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Within a few last decades the world has achieved substantial progress in increasing political openness and political liberties. 81 countries of the world made major steps on their way of democratization, and currently multi-party elections are being held in 140 states among about 200 existing more than ever before (United Nation Development Program (UNDP), 2002, p. 2). But sober political realities of the twenty first century demonstrate that democratization process is not smooth and sustainable.

Developing countries carried out democratization of their political countries under conditions of mass poverty and deep social and economical tension (UNDP, 2002, p. 4). Some of them which had undertaken steps toward democratic change after 1980 later returned back to more authoritative rule: either military as in Pakistan since 1999 or pseudo-democratic as in Zimbabwe last years.

Many others appeared to stand somewhere in between democracy and authoritarianism, with limited political liberties and closed or improperly functioning political systems. Some others, including such backward countries as Afghanistan and Somalia, Nigeria and Peru, Iraq and Cambodia, made favourable ground for extremism and armed conflicts (Armijo, Biersteker & Lowenthal, 1994, p. 169).

That is why it is very important for attaining stable peace and facilitating sustainable development all over the world to realize what leads to deepening and expansion of democracy. Democracy guaranteeing civil liberties, legitimacy observance and appointment of top-level political authority by elections is a great good, especially for developing countries as it is well-known that under conditions of lack of resources decentralized free market is more efficient than centralized allocation of resources (Shepherd, 1998, p. 38).

The purpose of this study is to explore which factors contribute to promotion of democratic change in developing nations as their way to democratization seems to be the most difficult due to necessity to resolve simultaneously one more task that of economic transformation. Toward this end we will analyze how current globalization of democratization influence upon developing countries, examine their internal economic and social forces facilitating democratic reforms, review different views of scholars on contribution of external and internal factors to democratization success, and make the conclusion.

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