Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 08:06:56
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Category: Mental disorder

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Case Study 1

Josephine is a 47-year-old single woman. The hardest times of the year for Josephines family are holidays and family gatherings; Josephine never seems to enjoy herself. She seldom smiles, laughs, or reacts to people and events around her. She remains detached and often goes into a room and plays video games or watches TV by herself, even when the rest of the family is eating. Her family members say that she is rude and do not want her around. Josephine lives by herself. She has held several jobs, but lost them because of her inability to interact with others. Her cool demeanor makes her difficult to approach. Josephine has no significant relationship in her personal life and cannot name any close friends. DSM-IV: Schizoid Personality Disorder

Schizoid personality disorder is one of the disorders whos causes are still unknown. There is speculation that the disorder may be related to schizophrenia, it even shares many of the same risk factors. Talk therapy is an option that has been discussed as a treatment but then quickly weeded out since individuals with schizoid personality disorder have a challenging time connecting well with others. There really isnt much known about treatments for this disorder and the majority of people who have schizoid personality disorder do not seek treatment. One thing that does help people who have this disorder, is to not make the person feel pressured by expecting them to be emotionally or sexually close to another individual. They can focus positively in a relationship in all other aspects besides the emotional and sexual categories.

Case Study 2

When 38-year-old Luis enters a room, everyone knows it. Shortly after making an entrance, Luis is sure to let everyone know about his successful business ventures, his many ideas for new inventions, and his latest expensive purchase. At the last office party, Luis sought out the CEO of the company and monopolized her time with accounts of his valuable contributions to the company. Luis has no patience with others and is often described by his coworkers as a man who uses people to get what he wants. Although he has been an office assistant for 10 years, Luis is always impeccably dressed because he often says that one day he will be the CEO, and he insists on looking the part now. DSM-IV: Narcissistic Personality Disorder

Narcissistic personality disorder is again, a disorder that there is no exact known cause. There have been studies done and researchers found a few factors that may be related to people with this disorder. Some of these factors that may possibly increase the likelihood of gaining a narcissistic personality may generally stem from childhood. It is possible that a child who gets too much praise, are around their parents all the time, and also that have unreliable parents. This is another disorder in which individuals do not often seek out treatment, but there are some things that can be done to help a person with this disorder. Treatments for narcissistic personality disorder include individual psychotherapy and cognitive behavioral therapy. I feel that the cognitive behavioral therapy is the most effective of the two because it helps change the persons destructive behavior and thinking patterns and turn them into a more positive self image.

Case Study 3

Two years ago, 23-year-old Anissa survived a horrific car accident in which two passengers of the car she was driving were killed. Her car was hit broadside by a drunk driver. Anissa was thrown from the car on impact. She was treated for cuts, bruises, and a broken arm, but recovered quickly and appeared otherwise unhurt. Three months after the cast on her arm was removed, Anissa began experiencing numbness in both hands. Extensive neurological tests eventually ruled out medical reasons for the numbness. Anissa was surprised when her neurologist referred her to a psychiatrist. DSM-IV: Somatoform Disorders

There has yet to be a found cause to somatoform disorders. There are of course some theories of why people say that they experience certain symptoms that relate to somatoform disorders. It might possibly be an issue with the nerve impulses that are in charge of sending signals of pain, pressure, or other negative feelings to the brain. When a person is experiencing these feelings and dealing with the problems of somatoform, they are not making these issues up, these are actually happening to them. Somatoform disorders are another disorder that tends to run in families and may come and go at different times. Sometimes a person will be prescribed medication for the pain that they are experiencing but most of the time they will not. When I was researching for treatments I had a difficult finding something steady about this so I am assuming that the greatest treatment that a person can go through for this disorder would be cognitive behavioral therapy. I think that a clinician could understand how the patients behaviors or their thought process could be altered to help relieve some of the pain that they are experiencing.

Case Study 4

Larry and Karen have always wanted a family. After 4 years of marriage, Karen gave birth to Austin, a healthy baby boy. Austin developed normally, walking at 13 months and saying dada, mama, and mid (for milk) by 14 months. At 15 months, Austin caught what appeared to be a cold. Over a 2-day period, his cold rapidly worsened, and he was hospitalized with acute respiratory distress. He was placed on a ventilator, but the infection progressed too quickly and Austin died on the second day of hospitalization. His funeral and burial took place 3 days later. In the span of 1 week, Larry and Karen had changed from being a happy family to burying their only son. The day after the burial, Karen woke up, went to Austins room, and panicked when she did not find him in his crib. She did not know that Austin had died, and she could not remember the events of the previous week. DSM-IV: Dissociative Disorders

Researchers feel that the cause of dissociative disorders may stem from some type of trauma that the individual experienced at some point in their life. It seems to be a type of coping method for the person who experiences this. Their mind may actually completely block out the event that was traumatic so they do not have to cope with it. Sort of a way for the mind to break down. This is surely an area that I can relate to in a sense. I feel that this is what I did as an infant when my Mom passed away. All I knew was that she was gone and then family said that I shut her out by never acknowledging who she was in pictures anymore. The most common ways to treat dissociative disorders are with a combination of psychopharmacological, psychosocial treatments, and psychotherapy.

Case Study 5

Tony was a straight-A student in high school. He entered college on a full scholarship, and moved into the freshman dorm. He did well during his first semester, but his roommate noticed a change in Tony during the second semester of their freshman year. Tony slept very little, was inconsistent about grooming and hygiene, and seemed preoccupied with his own thoughts, often talking to himself in a worried whisper. He was observed muttering to himself during class, prompting two professors to ask him to leave. When Tony became verbally abusive to the second professor, he was escorted off the premises by security and was required to meet with the dean. Tony appeared at this meeting unshaven and in wrinkled, unwashed clothes. He told the dean that the professors did not understand the pressures of his new duties as an FBI agent. During their conversation, Tony often paused and tilted his head, as if listening to voices or sounds; the dean did not detect any sounds. The dean suspended Tony and recommended his parents come get Tony and seek psychiatric help for him. DSM-IV: Schizophrenia

There is not a reliable cause for schizophrenia but researchers have suggested that schizophrenia can be inherited and by having acquired brain vulnerabilities and also with stressful life events. There is also a study that was done that suggests that some people with schizophrenia may have too many have too many dopamine receptors or that the receptors are overly sensitive to dopamine. This would cause too many messages being transmitted causing psychotic symptoms. There is no cure to schizophrenia but there are things that can be done to make a persons life with this disorder easier on them. The first step is to get them on anti psychotic drugs. The next step is to start therapy to help manage the life that they live, and the last is to be in some sort of community support system like rehabilitation.

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