(Al-Bayati and Hussein, 2008) presents an applied Generic Software of multiple kinds of E-Examination package; this package of e-exam was designed and concerned with Hearing Impaired (HI) persons (i.e. people with weakened or reduced ability of hearing). Therefore the exam material of this package is translated into an understandable language of HI persons like sign language and finger spelling. (Olawale Adebayo and ShafiI Muhammed Abdulhamid,2009) said, The concept of the Generic software is to present an empty templates to the teacher who would like to develop his required E-Examination for the needful topic (mathematics, language, science, etc) and desired set of exam kinds (multiple choices, matching between words, fill in blanks, etc).
(Zhenming et al, 2003) worked on Web-based Examination System that provides an effective solution for mass education evaluation. They developed a novel online examination system based on a Browser/Server framework which carries out the examination and auto-grading for objective questions and operating questions, such as programming, operating Microsoft Windows, editing Microsoft Word , Excel and PowerPoint, etc. (Adebayo and Abdulhamid,2009) said it has been successfully applied to the distance evaluation of basic operating skills of computer science, such as the course of computer skills in Universities and the nationwide examination for the high school graduates in Zhejiang Province, China.
(Rashad et al, 2010) proposed web based online examination system. (Adebayo and Abdulhamid, 2009) said that, The system carries out the examination and auto-grading for students exams and that the system facilitates conducting exams, collection of answers, auto marking the submissions and production of reports for the test. Also, it supports many kinds of questions and was used via Internet and is therefore suitable for both local and remote examination.
They, said the system could help lecturers, instructors, teachers and others who are willing to create new exams or edit existing ones as well as students participating in the exams in which they said the system was built using various open source technologies AJAX, PHP, HTML and MYSQL database. They said, an auto-grading module was generalized to enable different exam and question types and the system was tested in the Mansoura university quality assurance center. They said, the test proved the validity of using this kind of web based systems for evaluates students in the institutions with high rate of students.
(EL Emary and Al Sondos, 2006) worked on an online website for tutoring and e-examination of economic course aimed to present a novel software tool can be used for online examination and tutorial application of the syllabus of economic course (Adebayo and Abdulhamid, 2009) said the proposed software is structured from two major modules: The first one was an online website to review and make self-test for all the material of economic course. The second part is an online examination using a large database bank of questions through it the level of students can be evaluated immediately and some statistical evaluations can be obtained. They said, the developed software offers the following features: 1) Instructors could add any further questions to maximize the size of the bank of questions. 2) Different examinations for each student with randomly selected questions from the bank of questions can be done.
3) Different reports for the instructors, students, classes¦etc can be obtained.
4) Several students can take their exams simultaneously without any problem inside and outside their campus. He concluded that, the proposed software has been designed to work base on the client server architecture.
(Levy and Ramim, 2007) they proposed a theoretical approach that incorporates available fingerprint biometrics authentication technologies in conjunction with E-learning environments to curb unethical conduct during e-learning exam taking(Adebayo and Abdulhamid, 2009) said the proposed approach suggests practical solution that can incorporate a random fingerprint biometrics user authentication during exam taking in E-learning courses and they concluded that doing so is to control or limit exam cheating in e-learning environments.
(Adebayo and Abdulhamid, 2009) describes the method of preparing the E-Examination questions, in which they said questions should be prepared by the lecturer in-charge and submitted to the administrator whose responsibility is to enter pool of questions into the database as well as the timing set for the exams. They explained also based on the result presentation/checking that most of the centers visited in his research work, do not give access to students to see their results immediately which they said its one of the main essence of introducing E-Examinations but in our proposed system using Bells University as a case study, the scope is limited to not granting students access to viewing their results immediately as a result of the final authorization or decision-making by the senates. Their methodology was based on interviews and questionnaire and use-cases was used as their techniques for capturing the functional requirements of a system.
They said that use-cases work by describing the typical interactions between the users of a system and the system itself, providing a narrative of how a system is used. They stated the challenges of the existing system (i.e.E-Examination System) which includes; security, human interference, inadequate training for the students and staff, complexity of software. They concluded that the proposed system will definitely reduce drastically the problems such as human interference, impersonation, bribe-taking by lectures, examination leakages and also reduce the number of invigilators needed in this system. He recommends the future research of examining students attitudes and psychological aspects associated with the proposed solution of e-exam users authentication and also the economical issues associated with implementation of such solution.
Ayo et al (2007) proposed a model for e-Examination in Nigeria where all applicants are subjected to online entrance examination as a way of curbing the irregularities as proposed by the Joint Admissions Matriculation Board (JAMB), the body saddled with the responsibility of conducting entrance examinations into all the Nigerian universities. Their research work also, was to investigate the level of ICT literacy of applicants. The model was designed and tested in Covenant University, one of the private universities in Nigeria. Their findings revealed that the system has the potentials to eliminate some of the problems that are associated with the traditional methods of examination such as impersonation and other forms of examination malpractices such as the massive examination such as the massive examination leakages, demand for gratification by teachers, bribe-taking by supervisors and invigilators of examinations which is now a global phenomenon and has resulted to the general fallen standards of education and Nigeria is no exception, particularly among developing nations.
They said that, many institutions are beginning to reevaluate their traditional methods and have considered providing academic materials through the Internet. They said that Web-based testing and assessment systems offer greater flexibility than the traditional approach because test could be offered at different times by students and in different locations (Jay, et al 2001). They employed two research methods: First, an e-Examination system was designed and implemented.
The application was developed with the use of HTML, PHP and MYSQL database for dynamism and tested on an Apache web server, hosted on the University intranet. The second method was a research survey carried out among the applicants. A set of questionnaire was designed and administered to applicants seeking admission into Covenant University as a case study. The questionnaires were administered immediately after the examination to the students to assess the adequacy of the system and questions and their level of ICT literacy.
(Akinsanmi et al, 2010), designed and developed a web application where tests in multiple choice formats will be taken online and graded immediately. Microsoft developed technologies was used for the web application which runs on the Microsoft.net framework, using the ASP.NET web server, C# as the intermediate language, ADO.NET to interact with the relational database and Microsoft SQL server as the relational database.
Mhammed et al (2007) worked on the challenges in distance learning unit. They observed that inefficient management could lead to a variety of problems in course delivery, such as delays in obtaining textbooks, problems in obtaining copyright permission, and even course delays. In an effort to facilitate, streamline and improve forms management, a system was designed to streamline the management of required forms for face-to-face, hybrid, online and televised courses. The system developed provides faculty, and distance learning administrators with an easy method to manage all forms effectively and efficiently.
Gaytan (2007) presented a detailed historical background of online education, with regards to its current status, its potentials and limitations that could lead to the advancement of the scholarship of teaching and learning. He stressed the need for online instructors to understand the way online education has evolved over the years from previous conceptions of education and the wide array of implications and assumptions involved in the delivery of online education. He also presented some recommendations for the advancement of online education. The historical background of online education mentioned above revealed that, in order for online education to work effectively, it requires (a) a constant and consistent adaptation by all parties involved, (b) addressing the financial challenges, (c) progressive leadership, (d) dealing effectively with the politics that get in the way, and (e) much commitment from educational stakeholders (Watkins, 1991).
He said that the current status of online education also reveals that there is an important role that online instruction plays in the society and said the instructional quality involves the effective integration of technology into the learning environment of the classroom, which also requires a vision of what students must learn and be able to do, student engagement, and a thorough understanding of content knowledge and effective online delivery strategies by the instructors (Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006). He said that problems will continue to emerge anytime that there is a difference in the way online and face-to-face faculty are treated as regards to academic qualifications, research opportunities, salary, and evaluation criteria and said such problems must be addressed effectively to enhance the sustainability of on line education.
He demonstrated that online education is at least as effective as face-to-face classroom instruction by the fact that researchers have usually attempted to compare online and face-to-face courses in terms of learning effectiveness by using experimental, quasi-experimental, or causal comparative methodologies and have found online instruction to be at least as effective as face-to-face teaching (Bata-Jones & Avery, 2004; Tallent-Runnels et al., 2006). He explained the limitations of instructional technology such as the perceived lack of social interaction and immediate feedback, inability to address the learning needs of a diverse group of students, lack of transparent academic activities by for-profit online schools (e.g., diploma mills). He said that the progressive online multimedia environment will continuously facilitate the effective delivery of online instruction because they mimic the dynamics involved in high-quality, face-to-face classroom instruction.
For instance, well-designed Internet-based instructional models will continue to flourish because they support problem solving and allow detail-oriented instructional guidance using highly structured tasks (Larreamendy-Joerns & Leinhardt, 2006). He recommended that, faculty must become heavily involved in the planning, design, and implementation of online instruction which must continuously engage in formal, scientific research that will lead to the advancement of the scholarship of online teaching and learning. Also, he recommended that, educational stakeholders must cease to measure the quality of online instruction against standards established for the face-to-face instruction. He concluded by saying that, future research should focus on developing new scientific models for online teaching and learning, based upon sound research methodologies rather than the faculty and student perceptions or standard model for face-to-face instruction(Tallent Runnels et al., 200).
(Francis Osang, 2012) studied academic staff (lecturers) perception of E-Examinations in Nigeria in an ODL (Open and Distance Learning) which he took a critical look at how the adoption of electronic examination have assisted National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) in the evaluation phase of students study circle as well as the architecture for electronic examination as implemented by NOUN, which can be used by any other ODL institution. He administered 105 questionnaires to the academic staff based on the five schools to seeking their views on their level of computer literacy, E-Examinations administration compared to the pen and paper examinations as well as the ease of use of the maple ta platform currently being used by NOUN.
His findings revealed that 81.9% of the lecturers are computer literate, while the remaining 28.4% are still getting use to basic computer usage skills which he implied that most academic staff (lecturers) employed by NOUN are computer literate and hence should appreciate e-exams. He said that 63% of the lecturers found maple ta (the software used) quite challenging while 47.3% found it very easy with time after training. He resulted with the fact that lecturers attitude towards e-learning activities was seen because of the level of technical difficulty and he also stated some factors responsible for lecturers decision about the use of ICT for instructional process which includes: demographic, experience in the use of the technology, intellectual enhancement, training, enabling environment and individuals interception (Fabry and Higgs, 1997; keller and cernerud, 2002; Murphy and Greenwood, 1998; Samuel and Bakar, 2006).
He concluded and said that E-Examination remains the best option for conducting examinations in open and distance learning institutions which he said would help to eliminate the myriad of problems associated with pen and paper exams such as examination malpractice, human errors, in marking and compilation of results, untimely release of results and reduction of the overwhelming task sometimes is experienced by lecturers in handling such number of students in open and distance learning institution.
His recommendations includes: the practice of E-Examinations to the pen and paper examinations in open and distance learning environment in Nigeria, the development and use of essay type examination which he said should be seriously looked into and lastly, he said serious attention should be made when making maple ta (which is a program used to generate questions and grade responses which are numerical, formulas, words etc.) scripting which should be easy and more user friendly making it compatible with Microsoft word applications, equation editor and other customize symbols.
(Dr Olubiyi Adeniyi Adewale and Timothy Olugbenga Ajadi, XXXX) studied at evaluating the perception of the students of NOUN on the examination.
(Akinyemi et al, 2007) in which they indicated: The advent of web applications into the computing technology has brought about a significant revolution in our social life including the traditional system of education and examination. Many institutions are beginning to reevaluate their traditional methods and have considered providing pedagogical materials through the internet. They said this trend led to so many research works on E-Examination as well as web based studies, not only in Nigeria but also globally and these works include Yuan, Z. Zhang, L. and Zhang G.(2003), Jackson, D. and Usher, M. (1997) and Stina, B. Micahel, T. Stephen G. and Roberto T.(2000).
They said most of these researches focus on the development of web-based testing and assessment, especially the construction of questions of equal weight and randomization of items on individuals test papers and said they overlooked the perception of the students which are the subjects of this type of examination. They stated three research questions to able to elicit students perception in which such questions were turned into three hypotheses. They presented the advantages of E-Examination:
âž¢ Removal of human errors involved in the process of examination. âž¢ The eradication of the compilation and physical movement of examination scripts, especially in the NOUN where we had to exchange examination scripts between the 39 study centres to avoid the halo effect and guarantee the quality of the assessment. âž¢ It would also eradicate examination malpractice from the part of the students. They made use of the Tukey Post Hoc analysis which revealed that the difference of students perception lies on the reduction of examination malpractice, wide coverage of scheme of work, students academic performance, age factor to the use of IT and inadequate facilities.
They concluded that the Open and Distance Learning (ODL) requires more vibrant mode of conducting an examination and revealed from their findings that the use of e-examination should be encouraged across all distance institutions since it will help in reducing examination malpractice, increase students academic performance and had wide coverage of the scheme of work and enhance prompt release of students academic results. They recommended that in order to help students with the use of IT, especially the older students, workshops should be organized for students which was said can be done through video conferencing with the use of headquarter as the base and they recommended the institutions to work towards having its own facilities for the e-examinations, especially personal computers and suggested that the centers with very high student enrolment should be concentrated on first before others.
(Kenneth Castro et al, 2010) developed a computer-based entrance exam for Liceo de Cagayan University (LDCU). They said the proposed system would speed up the processing of the examination thereby allowing the examinee/examiner/ department chairman to get the results fast. Their user interface was developed using PHP as front-end and MY SQL for back-end in order to establish a connection between LDCU Intranet Examination System and the database. They said that automation is designed to maximize efficiency, convenience, and quality services offered and said it is undeniable that automation is a lot faster compared to the traditional way of doing a job which requires much effort. They stated that there are a variety of aspects needs to be taken into account when deploying a web-based assessment and such includes; software quality, secure delivery, reliable network(if Internet-based),capacities, support, maintenance, software costs for development and test delivery, and licenses.
They cited (Soft, 2009) whose study was anchored on the concept that the course or movement of information in a process flows through a series of tasks that have set of rules or decision points based on the Input-Process-Output Model, and also cited (Santos.et al, 2007) saying the flow of data of the system from main entities through out the entire system is shown by symbols that represent the different functions. Their proposed system is limited to students who want to enroll in Liceo de Cagayan University and the examination can only be taken inside the designated area and only the examiner is given the authority to operate the computers. Students in this case were given 45mins to answer 72 random questions. Also, the entrance examination system is activated upon the registration of the examinee by the examiner and the exam result is automatically generated right after the exam submission by the examinee but only the administrator or examiner and the chairman can view and print the exam results.
They used the spiral model for the proposed system, the model started with planning and the flow of the study was planned carefully. The next step they took was the gathering of data from the internet, books, and journals as bases for the system design in which after the design the system was tested in order to ensure that the result or accomplishment satisfies the stated objectives. They concluded that the Intranet Entrance Examination works as designed and that the system provides fast and easy way of taking an entrance exam on the part of the examinee, a convenient way of administering the exam on the part of the examiner, and a quick way of getting the exam results on the part of the examinee and the chairman. They provided a system which serves as a back file that connects to the main server of the campus for safety measures. They recommended the following: âž¢ The proposed system be implemented by the school to enhance the administration of the entrance exam âž¢ Administrator be provided at least one computer as server âž¢ The examiner be provided 50 computers during the exam to avoid system crash. âž¢ The examination be taken in the area provided and
âž¢ The system be put online.
(Rufai M.M, Adigun J. O, N. A. Yekini, 2012) proposed a Biometric Model for Examination Screening and Attendance Monitoring in Yaba College of Technology which proffers solution to the problem of student impersonation during exams. A biometric model is designed to identify every applicant at the point of entry into the examination hall. A biometric verification exercise is also conducted while the examination is going and at the point of submission of examination papers. The students attendance is captured automatically as their identity is verified on the biometric systems. The Biometric Access Control Techniques was explained and the model describing its application to examination screening and attendance monitoring was designed using denotational mathematics.
They recommended that more works need to be done in evolving a more robust liveness detection algorithm that eliminate the danger of spoofing and guarantee a true identification of the user. They designed a Biometric Model for Examination Screening and Attendance Monitoring using Finite State Automata Theory and they concluded by saying that Biometric Access is a better substitute for the use of Identity card in verifying users identity and also said the naturalness in the use of fingerprint makes it a reliable access control technique and stated the fact that a user no longer needs to carry identity cards and other documents for identification which explains the ease of use and see to the future work in implementating the proposed model in Examination Halls.