Multicultural policies are constantly challenged and changing in Australia due to emerging cosmopolitan ideas and the way that these ideas shape the changing education curriculum in schools. The three different types of cosmopolitanism include political, moral and cultural cosmopolitanism. Differing from multiculturalism, cosmopolitanism acknowledges the fact that cultures can change and their mode of orientation to the world can also change so that people can develop a cosmopolitan disposition for themselves in the form of self-transformation. Where multiculturalism has problems of selectiveness, cosmopolitanism maintains indifference to labels and stereotypes to create a diverse atmosphere. Cosmopolitanism pursues to assume transformations in cultural standards through the education of self-awareness, agency and identity. Together with education, cosmopolitanism and multiculturalism contributes to modelling a inclusive society. Delanty (2006) states, The critical aspect of cosmopolitanism concerns the internal transformation of social and cultural phenomena through self-problematisation and pluralisation. It is in the interplay of self, other and world that cosmopolitan processes come into play. Without a learning process, that is an internal cognitive transformation, it makes little sense in calling something cosmopolitan. As used here, the term refers to a developmental change in the social world arising out of competing cultural models.
This suggests a procedural conception of the social. Cosmopolitan learning is not so much concerned with imparting knowledge and developing attitudes and skills for understanding other cultures per se but with helping students examine these, but with helping students examine the ways in which global processes are creating conditions of economic and cultural exchange that are transforming our identities and communities. (Rizvi 2009:265-266) Cosmopolitan learning stresses the idea that education is a crucial element in supporting the transformation of individuals and culture. It helps to move away from the us versus them perception that developed through multiculturalism. Educators should support students to explore the cosmopolitan ideas of global interconnectivity and individuality. This cosmopolitan view will enable students to connect locally built practices of cultural exchange to the wider practices of globalization. Cosmopolitan learning when incorporated into an already multicultural society and curriculum can help to achieve a level of interconnectedness and acceptance, also to maintain a diverse and open minded curriculum based learning.
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