After that I will exit the body cross the alveolar membrane on a path and out the nose. I will enter Mrs. Frizzle body through the femoral vein. The femoral vein is located in the upper thigh and pelvic region of the body and runs close to the femoral artery (Yahoo Health, 2012). Its one of the larger veins in the venal system (Yahoo Health, 2012). The femoral vein returns blood in the leg to the heart via the iliac vein (WiseGeek, 2012). Continuing North from the femoral vein I will pass through the inguinal ligament.
The inguinal ligament forms a band that runs from the anterior superior iliac spine to the pubis area of the spine (Yahoo Health, 2012). It serves as a base to the inguinal canal because hernias can form there. The main function of the inguinal ligament is to protect the tissue that is constantly moving in the trunk and lower extremities of the body (Yahoo Health, 2012). From the inguinal ligament still heading north I will pass through the external iliac vein. The external iliac vein is a continuation of the femoral vein above the inguinal ligament.
It starts at the groin and runs along the edge of the pelvic area (Yahoo Health, 2012). When it is combined with the internal iliac vein it forms the common iliac vein. The external iliac vein drains the leg and lower part of the anterior abdominal wall (Merriam-Webster, 2012). As I continue on I will pass the internal iliac vein to the East. The internal iliac vein combines with the external iliac vein to form the common iliac vein. It drains the pelvis, gluteal, and perineal regions (Merriam-Webster, 2012).
Next I will be passing through the common iliac vein, which is formed by the external and internal iliac veins. It allows blood circulation from the lower abdomen and legs (Wise Geek, 2012). The hepatic vein carries deoxygenated blood out of the liver and into the inferior vena cava (Wise Geek, 2012). The blood that was used to feed the liver and the blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder is transported through the hepatic vein. From the hepatic vein I will then pass through the inferior vena cava.
The inferior vena cava runs behind the abdominal cavity and alongside the right vertebra column of the spine (Yahoo Health, 2012). It carries oxygen depleted blood from the lower part of the body back to the heart. The inferior vena cava empties into the right atrium (Yahoo Health, 2012). Next stop is the right atrium. Its located on the lower back side of the heart. The right atrium is one of the four chambers of the heart. Blood enters the heart through the two atriums (Yahoo Health, 2012). Oxygen depleted blood enters the right atrium via the inferior and superior vena cava (Yahoo Health, 2012).
I will then pass through the tricuspid valve. It forms the boundary between the right ventricle and atrium (Yahoo Health, 2012). The tricuspid valve has tree flaps that keep blood from going back into the right atrium when they are closed. Next I will be moving on to the right ventricle. It is one of the four chambers of the heart, located at the lower left portion of the heart below the right atrium and opposite the left ventricle (Yahoo Health, 2012). The right ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygen depleted blood to the lungs. I will now pass through the right pulmonary artery.
It begins at the base of the hearts right ventricle and is approximately 3 cm in diameter and 5 cm in length (Yahoo Health, 2012). It then splits into the left and right pulmonary arteries. The right pulmonary artery delivers oxygen depleted blood to the right lung. From the right pulmonary artery I have made it to the right lung. Once in the lung I will travel South West to reach the lower lobe of the right lung. Im finally in the lung. I can finally see what it looks like. I see a structure that looks like a three without leaves. I am passing the right primary bronchi.
It is a tube like structure that allow for the passage of air between the trachea and lung (Health Type, 2012). As I move along the right primary bronchi branches off into the right secondary bronchi. Each one of the bronchi serves as an airway to a specific lobe of the lung (Wikipedia, 2011). The bronchi have cartilage plates, smooth muscles, and mucus-secreting gland cells in its wall (Wikipedia, 2011). They contain cilia, which removes dust and debris. Wow! The right secondary bronchi are branching off into very small passageways called bronchioles.
The bronchioles are responsible for controlling air distribution and airflow resistance in the lungs (Wise Geek, 2012). They also contain cilia that help move air through the system. The bronchioles are now terminating at the alveolar ducts. They are the tiny end ducts that fill the lungs. At the end of the alveolar ducts are the alveolar sacs. The alveolar sacs resemble a cluster of grapes (Structure and Function, 2008). The walls of the alveolar sacs are made up of numerous alveoli, each of them resemble a single grape (Structure and Function, 2008).
To fight the bacterium invasion in Mrs. Frizzle body a group of many organs and billions of freely-moving and trillions of free-floating molecules in different areas of the body work together (Structure and Function, 2008). Nonspecific or innate immunity is maintained by mechanisms that attack any irritant or abnormal substance that threatens the internal environment (Structure and Function, 2008). Mrs. Frizzle nonspecific immunity kicked in when the invading bacterium entered the lung. Pac man-like white blood cells called monocytes and macrophages take action.
They then busily recruit a number of other cells including more macrophages, neutrophils, and natural killer cells (Greater Immunity, 2010). All these cells work together to defeat the invader. In the bodys defense, Mrs. Frizzle will develop a fever. The fever is the bodys way of dealing more effectively with the invader. Later, during recovery, lymphocytes become active and create antibodies which will help Mrs. Frizzle deal with that particular bacterium, if she happens to encounter it again (Greater Immunity, 2010). The activated lymphocytes and antibodies become part of Mrs.
Frizzle acquired immunity. Specific or acquired immunity includes protective mechanisms that confer specific protection against certain types of invading bacteria or other toxic material (Structure and Function, 2008). Mrs. Frizzle built up specific immunity during her illness. Her memory cells in her immune system learned the illness and remembered how to beat it in the future if it was to occur again. Specific immunity can be natural or artificial. Natural immunity is naturally inherited from the parents. Artificial immunity is immunization.
Now that the Battle of the Lung is documented I can return home. I will now cross the alveolar membrane into the alveoli. I will take the alveoli to the bronchioles. From the bronchioles I will pass through the bronchi. I will then take the bronchi to the trachea. Next I will take the trachea to the nasopharynx. Upon leaving the nasopharynx I will arrive at the orthopharynx. I will then take the orthopharynx to my destination, out the nose. This was indeed a fantastic voyage. I hope you have learned just as much as I have. Signing out, India Hornsby at ASAP Health.