Global Sanitation Essay

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Introduction

A disturbing remark that numbers show that diseases coming from improper hygiene and waste disposal not only make people suffer or even kill then but make the beautiful environment perish as well. When will people see this problem, is it when its too late? No! We wont let it happen! How? Global sanitation: An environmental response. Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces .

Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease worldwide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in our households and across our communities. It also provides great impact in our environment where we live. The word sanitation also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. Sanitation is not only present in one or two countries, thus it is present in every country of the world the global sanitation.

In the Philippines, coverage and quality of water supply and sanitation suffer low investment rates, many small supply systems, a fragmented sector structure, and increasing pollution of water resources. Tariffs are mostly too low to recover costs, resulting in poor utility performance. Moreover, many supply systems are too small to work efficiently.

The connection of urban poor is often impeded by high connection fees. Although attempts have been made to introduce a comprehensive sector framework, many responsibilities remain unclear. Only 4% are connected to a sewerage system. Together with the neglect of a comprehensive water resources policy until 2004. this led a serious threat to Filipino drinking water. However, since 2003 efforts have been made to improve the situation, especially by the Filipino National Water Resources Board (NWRB).

Statement of the Problem

The researcher expects that through this term paper, the following questions will be answered and thoroughly explained as clear as possible.
1. What is sanitation?
2. What is Environmental sanitation?
3. What are 8 Millennium Developmental goals and its relationship on Sanitation?
4. How is Gender related to Sanitation?
5. What are the Binaries and Barriers of Sanitation?

Importance of the Study

Information gathered from this term paper can provide valuable knowledge to the following: The students of Lorma Colleges will have knowledge regarding sanitation and its importance. After reading, students may use the knowledge to share it with friends and family members. The Administration of Lorma Colleges and Faculty can also use this study in the search for new concepts about global sanitation and its benefits. The study will serve as a basis for the school in identifying ways on how to help the environment via global sanitation and teach it to their students.

The people of our community can also gain knowledge about the current situation of global sanitation and its effects to them. The researcher will develop their capabilities helping to preserve the environment. The result of the study will guide the researcher who is in the process of finding ways in preserving earth. It may give information to future researchers who are interested in conducting related studies. The future researchers may acquire information and may use this study as a guide for their future study on sanitation.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

The researcher delivers the readers great collection of subjects and issues that will enable them to appreciate the sanitation. This research paper refers a thorough discussion about a brief meaning about this topic and its effect to us and to the environment. The researcher also included some ways to contribute in global sanitation.

Despite the numerous topics that are discuss in this research paper, the researcher limit his study so that he will be able to discuss thoroughly every bit of information presented. Hence, this study only sticks to the topics stated upon.

Definition of Terms

Sanitation. It is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Gender. It refers to the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive hole. Mortality. It is the number of deaths in a given time or place. Morbidity. It is the relative incidence of a disease.

Barriers. It is the natural formation or structure that prevents or hinders movement or action. Primary Education. It is the first stage of compulsory education. It is preceded by pre-school or nursery education and is followed by secondary education. Tariffs. It refers as taxes on imported goods and services, levied by governments to raise revenues and create barriers to trade.

CHAPTER II
Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data
Sanitation

Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities.

The word sanitation also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste water disposal. Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes. Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease .Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage , grey water ),industrial wastes and agricultural wastes.

Hygienic means of prevention can be by using engineering solutions (e.g sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks) or even by personal hygiene practices(e.g simple hand washing with soap).Sanitation as defined by the WHO (World Health Sanitation) ; Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and faeces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease worldwide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word sanitation also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and waste water disposal.

Human waste, (excreta) is smelly, attracts flies, and is personal. Unless it is managed effectively disease can spread quickly, killing thousands. Sanitation is the process of preventing human, animal, and insect contact with excreta to avoid the spread of diseases.

One gram of feces can contain 10 million viruses, 1 million bacteria, 1 thousand cyst parasites and about a hundred worm eggs so the danger of disease is massive. When any waste is exposed and clean water and hygiene education are limited, all people in the community are vulnerable to illness caused by feces.

Sanitation may be as cheap and simple as a protected pit latrine or as expensive and complex as a flush toilet with sewerage. The further up the ladder, the greater the benefits for people and the environment.

The simplest form of sanitation is the pit latrine with a slab cover to stop contact with excreta by humans, animals and insects and a shelter around it for privacy and protection. The hole may be lined to prevent it collapsing. Pit toilets are used in rural or wilderness areas. Their advantages are that they are cheap and easy to build and maintain but they can smell and attract flies and the pit must be moved or emptied regularly.

Moving up the ladder is the self ventilated improved pit latrine (VIP). These are a little more expensive and use slightly more complicated technology. A vent pipe higher than the shelter reduces the smells and flies. They are still cheap to build and easy to maintain but are dependent on wind and are dark inside.

The next step is the pour-flash latrine which uses a pan with a water-seal connected to a pit by a ripe. This stops flies and smells from coming out of the pit, but a water source is needed. Further up the ladder are composting toilets which vary greatly in construction and expense. They all use micro-organism to break down the waste into organic compost or manure. Various systems of vents of fans may be used to speed up the process of composting. Advantages of composting toilets include reuse of the compost as fertilizer, reduced pollution of ground water and lack of dependence on water, but skilled labour is required for the construction.

At the top of the ladder is a full sewerage system, which is an extensive series of pipes leading to a sewage treatment plant. It is costly to install and maintain such systems beyond capacity.

Environmental Sanitation

Environmental sanitation involves controlling the aspects of waste management that may lead to the transmission of disease. Included in the term waste management are water, solid waste, and industrial waste.

Environmental sanitation also covers the topic of pollution.

The environmental condition in a given area may be affected by waste disposal. Methods of waste disposal often vary based on living conditions and the accepted standard living in a geographical area. While some countries provide waste water treatment and trash collection, other countries may not have these systems in place to control environmental hygiene. When waste is not removed and treated properly, pollution may lead to the spread of disease.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are three areas that must be reviewed in order for environmental sanitation to be effective. These are water supply, sanitation, and hygiene education. The WHO currently offers guidelines on implementing environmental hygiene programs to improve overall health.

The water supply can play a huge part in pollution and the spread of disease. The most common sources of water include rainwater, surface water, and groundwater. Groundwater can be least threatening of all potable water. The sources of groundwater, usually wells and springs, are often untainted by waste disposal. Rainwater and surface water, on the other hand, are often considered the least potable, and in need of water treatment before human consumption.

The most threatening source of water is often surface water. If waste is not disposed of properly, it can mix with water on the ground that may be collected for drinking and cooking. Contamination can be caused by household trash and human waste. The consumption of tainted water can lead to new disease outbreaks and the spread of current outbreaks.

Environmental sanitation is not limited to the pollution of water and improper disposal of waste. When factories or businesses dispose of chemical and physical waste in ways that directly affect the water supply, it is often referred to as industrial pollution. While the actual dumping site may occur several miles away from the main source of water, drainage and rainfall can cause the chemicals and physical waste to mix with the water supply.

The 8 Millennium Developmental Goals (Mgds)

Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger: Sanitation provides economic benefits that reduce extreme poverty. A recent cost-benefit analysis by the WHO demonstrated an estimated economic return of between US$3 and 44 for every US $1 invested in water and sanitation. Improved sanitation also reduces deaths from malnutrition. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education: Improved sanitation promotes school attendance 443 million school days are lost each year due to water-related diseases.

More- over, there is a clear gender divide in access to education. A majority of the 121 million school-aged children not in the school are girls; at the primary level, this is a result of being responsible for household chores including fetching water, once girls reach puberty, a lack of access to sanitation becomes a central cultural and human health issue. Female illiteracy and low levels often lead to poor health outcomes for pregnant women and their children (see Goal 5). As a corollary, school-based sanitation education can influence entire communities by training the next generation in safe and sustainable hygiene practices.

Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower Women:

Safe sanitation facilities reduce exposure to sexual and physical violence and harassment for women and girls, and gender-sensitive hygiene facilities at school and work promote the attendance of menstruating girls and women. The lack of dignity, privacy and safety accorded women without access to sanitation can further manifest itself through increased urinary tract infections as women choose to drink less during the day as part of their sanitation strategy. Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality: In addition to reducing child mortality from diarrhea- related malnutrition, improved sanitation can help to reduce morbidity for millions of other children. An estimated 50 % of cases of malnutrition are associated with repeated diarrhea and intestinal infections as a result of unsafe water, inadequate sanitation or in- sufficient hygiene.

This accounts for 860,000 preventable child deaths per year. Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health: Maternal health, child survival and access to sanitation are intricately linked. Poor maternal nutrition, including diarrhea-related malnutrition, is a major risk factor for maternal deaths and can affect birth weight and child development. Poor sanitation and lack of access to clean water increases the risk of infection during childbirth. Improved sanitation and hygiene enhances the health of mothers as caregivers, primary water carriers and foods preparers. Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other Diseases: Improved sanitation and hygiene reduces risk of waterborne diseases like choler, reduces morbidity and mortality from opportunistic infections for AIDS sufferers and helps to ensure that they have access to clean and private facilities.

Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability: Improved water and sanitation benefits the connections between environment, health and sustainable stewardship of local resources. Goal 8: develop a Global partnership for Development: The sanitation sector is currently fragmented, with stakeholders playing diverse roles in different regions and time periods. A more harmonized coalition-building approach between these partners, where tested, has improved partnerships and access to sanitation

Gender and Sanitation Empowering Young Girls

Women are the direct beneficiaries of improved knowledge on health and hygiene related issues. Womens enhanced awareness is translated into improved hygiene practices that directly benefit children, the elderly, their families and the wider community. It is imperative that women are educated about the importance of hygiene to ensure personal health and that of their families. Exposing ones self in the open, especially during menstruation, affects womens safety, dignity and sense of self-worth; maintaining dignity is critically important during a young girls adolescent years. Having proper, safe and private sanitation facilities helps to ensure that girl stay in school and further their education, thus improving the overall status of their families and livelihood.

International conferences throughout the 1990s consistently highlighted the importance of increasing womens participation in water-related initiatives by drawing on womens knowledge and increasing their involvement as managers and decision makers on water-related issues; however, little has been done to promote womens involvement in the sanitation sector. Household sanitation is everyones responsibility. However, women carry a large percentage of the burden through their role as caregiver, as well as their personal sanitation needs. To combat sanitation and hygiene issues internationally, we need to collectively articulate who is most affected and how we can make the greatest impact on the community.

For many women, their lives are lived in shadows cast by men and dominated by the demands of subsistence farming. They lead a life that precludes time for regrets or hopes of a different future. Improving girls education, especially at the secondary level where gender differences are more pronounced, is the first and most critical step towards the economic empowerment of women, and towards reducing child and maternal mortality. Research shows that for women and girls, secondary education is associated with improved economic prospects, better reproductive health, and improved HIV awareness.

Moreover, it is now widely recognized that the education and economic empowerment of women is key to changing the trajectory of world poverty. Specifically, an extra year of female education can reduce infant mortality by 5-10 percent. In Africa, children of mothers who receive five years of primary education are 40% less likely to die before age five than those of uneducated mothers (UNICEF, 2009). Kofi Annan, in 1999, describes girls education as the single highest returning social investment in the world today. Education is a key to human development and women who are educated have fewer and healthier children and are far more likely to send their own children to school.

Lack of sanitation and inadequate hygiene and crucial issues that are rarely addressed; yet they contribute to a number of problems facing women and girls in developing countries. Communities that lack sanitation and practice poor hygiene have increased rates of diseases like diarrhea, cholera, typhoid and parasitic infections. These diseases have a strong negative impact on the health and nutrition of children, which in turn, negatively impact their capacity to learn and their ability to regularly attend school. Women and girls are particularly impacted by the sanitation crisis. Poor access to improved sanitation increases their vulnerability to violence when having to relieve them in the open after nightfall.

The situation is further complicated by menstruation. Studies show that girls who are menstruating do not attend school because school latrines, if available, often do not offer the necessary privacy, sanitary waste disposal or hand-washing facilities. A compilation of qualitative information is being developed based on a series of face to face interviews in Malawi and Rwanda in conjunction with an environmental scan. Five hundred girls were interviewed over a period of 6 months in 2008 regarding the role of women and girls, their social barriers, and physical constraints pertaining to their uses of improved sanitation and hygiene practices in Africa.

The work was undertaken in order to help young women identify their secondary school sanitation requirements, empower them to gain greater control over their educational experience in order to reach their full potential, and to provide opportunities to resolve issues related to access to sanitation in schools. The following observations are based on a small subset of respondents (n=43) with an average age of 17 from Rwanda. The majority self- identified as middle-income families (65%), with 35% identifying themselves among the poorest in their community. Preliminary findings that all respondents had a latrine in the house, but only 18% had a sink next to the latrine; even with a household latrine, 4% of respondents still practices open defecation.

The household latrine was valued for its perceived role in the improvement of dignity (53% of respondents somewhat; 16 % significantly). In the school environment, 25 % of respondents did not have facility to wash their hands by the toilet and almost 40 when asked what they would improve at the school mentioned a combination of sinks, soap and oil for their hands. Almost 40% indicated that they missed t least some school while menstruating, although 88% of respondents felt that the school provided a safe clean place to go to the toilet.

Binaries

Binaries can provide a useful roadmap for navigating the world of sanitation, but they can also constrain our thinking. These binaries need to be revisited periodically in order to ensure that they are useful and progressive. Key binaries that have the potential to detail the most well-intentioned solutions include: wet versus dry sanitation; male versus female needs; shared versus private facilities; and, provision versus use. While some argue that water-based sewage treatment technologies represent the pinnacle of improved sanitation, they may not be ecologically or economically feasible or appropriate. The current sanitation ladder does not privilege water-based sanitation over other forms sanitation.

However, centralized water-based sanitation systems, used in most regions of the world with high levels of access to improved sanitation, and was inherited via the infrastructure created during the first Sanitation Revolution in Europe. Historic scientific beliefs were based on the premise that running water purifies itself; the result is an infrastructure that promotes contamination and a culture of water waste in which uses simply flush and forget. Choosing appropriate technologies is an important component of community-based sanitation, and the cultural privilege accorder to water-based sanitation may discourage communities from choosing more ecologically appropriate and sustainable systems, such as urine diversion and dry composting toilets.

Womens voices have tended to go unheard, despite the fact that womens needs are materially different from those of men. Defecation taboos force both men and women in open-defecation communities to wait until nightfall to defecate in fields and roadside ditches. Night time defecation puts womens security at risk. Similarly, shared toilets put women at risk of violence and harassment. Menstrual taboos, meanwhile, discourage women from using shared toilets where menstrual blood may be seen, inhibiting womens social and economic participation and girls participation in school. Further, women and girls act as primary caregivers in the home, putting them at risk of contracting diseases from the contaminated feces of children and the ill.

It has been widely recognized that benefits accrue from involving women in the design, implementation and management of sanitation systems. Shared sanitation facilities need to be valued. The sanitation ladder approach does not recognize shared sanitation as improved because shared facilities can create barriers to safe access for women and girls. But in slum areas where space is at a premium, shared facilities designed with the needs of females in mind, may represent the best possible practice for immediate improvement to sanitation coverage.

The question of which technologies best meet the needs of girls and women in diverse environment is not well-articulated by the current hierarchy depicted by the sanitation ladder approach. Shared facility designs that meet the needs of women and children need to be included. Long-term behaviour change is a prerequisite for the sustainable use of sanitation facilities. Communities that do not understand the connections between hygiene practices and community health and prosperity are less likely to adopt and sustain healthy sanitation practices.

Many examples exist of effective and efficient provision of sanitation facilities that lack sustained use. In order to facilitate this understanding, buy-in and ownership of the problem and solutions, communities and individuals need to be fully engaged. Participatory methods that build upon local knowledge and existing capacity have proven effective, as has the promotion of relevant traditional practices. Stimulating local demand for sanitation is a first step towards sustainable improvement.

However, in some case, appropriate technologies can stimulate behaviour change (supply driven). Technologies that are useful, interesting or confer status can stimulate community demand. Some communities have succeeded in creating demand and stimulating community pride by encouraging communities to choose their own technologies (i.e., ecologically friendly latrines, or biogas toilets) because of the benefit of selling the fuel produced, being able to supply lighting in the home, or producing dependency on other, less convenient fuels.

Barriers

Inadequate information is made available about the links between poor sanitation and ill-health. Lack of understanding at the individual level about the intrinsic links between health, sanitation and hygiene, and therefore the importance and relevance of maintaining sanitation and hygiene practices is one barrier to sustained adoption. Even when people are aware of the connections between sanitation and hygiene and health and well-being, barriers (including land tenure rights, lack of time, and social taboo) act to prevent individuals and communities from advocating on their own behalf in an effort to adopt sustainable sanitation. Top-down sanitation approaches are not sustainable. Instead approaches must be community- led.

Communities, defined in the broadest sense, should make decisions about and deliver their own sanitation services. A broad definition of community includes not only people (i.e. households, individuals and traditional leaders), but it also includes institutions, such as schools and health centres, and in particular local governments. Community- led approaches enable flexibility with respect to local social, cultural, ecological and economic needs. Womens unique sanitation must be reflected through the participation of women in sanitation governance. Further, community involves revisiting issues at the community level; for example, issues such as tenure, ownership and property rights, and coordination between funders, governments and services.

Basic training is not available to community-based sanitation workers and professionals. Currently, comprehensive community sanitation training programmers or centres do not exist. NGOs typically highlight a gap in capacity enhancement as a major barrier to sustainability once they leave a community. Courses are needed that encompasses range of fields in order for the local level workers to engage and communicate with experts and officials across water, sanitation, environment, finance and public health sectors. Sanitation is under-prioritized by donors and recipient communities. Social stigma associated with sanitation mean that groups need to be convinced to embrace sanitation as an investment priority.

The significant benefits which accrue through improved health and well being, reduced burden on the healthcare system, improved water quality and decreased environmental degradation, and increased opportunities for education and economic engagement have been well articulated. However, individuals need to be educated on the benefits that are of greatest value to them; different groups respond to different arguments, and messages need to be targeted.

The financial cost- benefit ratios may resonate with the government sector, while improved health may justify the effort by mothers. Meanwhile, biogas production for use and sale may be the reason that male members of a household embrace change. The cost-benefit analysis for sanitation has rarely been translated to recipients at the individual, household and community levels. But household and communities stand to benefit in terms of, for example, costs savings for doctor visits and medications for diarrheal infections, as well as fewer work and school absentees.

CHAPTER 3
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

Summary

Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word sanitation also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal. Environmental sanitation also covers the topic of pollution. Environmental sanitation is not limited to the pollution of water and improper disposal of waste. Improved sanitation also reduces deaths from malnutrition. Improved sanitation promotes school attendance 443 million school days are lost each year due to water-related diseases. Maternal health, child survival and access to sanitation are intricately linked.

Improved sanitation and hygiene enhances the health of mothers as caregivers, primary water carriers and food preparers. Improved water and sanitation benefits the connection between environment and health. Community participation in water, sanitation and hygiene practices facilitate recognition of the connections between environment, health and sustainable stewardship of local resources. Household sanitation is everyones responsibility. Women and girls are particularly impacted by the sanitation crisis. The current sanitation ladder does not privilege water-based sanitation over other forms of sanitation.

Shared sanitation facilities need to be valued. The sanitation ladder approach does not recognize shared sanitation facilities as improved because shared facilities can create barriers to safe access to women and girls. Womens unique sanitation needs must be reflected through the participation of women in sanitation training governance. Currently, comprehensive community sanitation training programmes or centres do not exist. Sanitation is under-prioritized by donors and recipient communities.

Conclusion

Low level of sanitation has no good bearing to us and to the environment. It will only lead to high morbidity and mortality not only with humans but also to the other species such as animals and plants. Sanitation must be integrated into community life holistic, community based and community-driven. Empower local communities to identify needs, change behaviour, create demand for ownership and overcome obstacles such as land tenure. Simply providing latrines is not a sustainable solution sanitation facilities must be used maintained. As it stands, many water and sanitation projects are no longer operating after 5-7 years they fall into despair, or are used for other purposes including food storage, or are technologically or environmentally inappropriate for local conditions requiring large amounts of water in dry areas, or flogging wet areas.

Top-down and other prescriptive approaches are not sustainable and do not always meet the needs of the individuals, family or community. In order for sanitation solutions to be appropriate and embraced by community members, the process needs to be driven, implemented and embraced by an empowered and enlightened community. Mechanisms for facilitation will vary according to social, economic and cultural contexts, but will include education, social marketing and supply driven approaches.

Recommendation

Sanitation must be addressed in the border context of global poverty and in concert with the other MDGs as part of an overall strategy to increase global equity, empowerment and engagement within the local economy through a reduced burden on health and well-being is a critical component. Sanitation should be a primary focus but must be situated within the broader context of water management and access to safe water. From an epidemiological perspective, sanitation and hygiene are equally important as transmission routes for water-related diseases, and as such it is not practical to target interventions at one transmission route to the exclusion of others.

Maintaining a distinction between water supply and sanitation will only work if we recognize and incorporate their inherent links. Investments in sanitation must be co-ordinated, long term and focus on both software (usage) as well as hardware (facilities). To make monitoring more valuable, community-based evaluations should strive to integrate and examine failures and successes associated with sanitation delivery. The Global Sanitation Fund is an important step forward; donors need to demonstrate support in this initiative.

Similarly, the UN International Year of Sanitation 2008 made great strides in advocating for sanitation, as did the launch of Sustainable Sanitation Alliance (SUSANA). We must not allow this momentum to fade. In addition, new financing mechanisms need to be explored, including cross subsidization of sanitation through, for example, water services (e.g. bottled water) and payment for ecological services (e.g. nutrient reduction). Monitoring and evaluation must address the sustainability of sanitation facilities and hygiene behaviour that is, to measure sanitations software (usage) as well as its hardware (facilities).

Moreover, community-based evaluations should be established and strive to integrate and examine failures and successes associated with sanitation delivery. Acceptable sanitation access must be redefined within the context of gender, economic realities and environmental constraints. The sanitation ladder concept is a significant improvement over previous measures, but it does not recognize some types of sanitation facilities that are being used successfully in various locations and situations. A new definition of sanitation is required that reflects gender sensitivities, economic realities and environmental constraints.

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