These include of: Length of wings Number of tailsI have chosen to use the variable of the number of paperclips being added to the tail of the paper helicopter that I shall make. I have chosen to change this variable because I know that gravitation is the effect of the gravitational force of attraction, which acts between all objects in the universe. For example it is widely noticed with massive objects like the planets. The planets remain in orbit because of gravitational force of attraction.
The gravitational force, which pulls the object downwards, is called the weight of the object. Isaac Newton stated that there is a gravitational force of attraction between any two objects with mass, which depends on their masses, and the distance between them. I think with this information I can easily say that by adding more and more paperclips on to the tail of the paper helicopter it will gain more weight which will cause the gravitational force to pull it downwards rather than upwards as there is a bigger mass pulling it downwards.
I also chose to use this variable instead of changing the length of the wings because I thought that it would have a much more affective difference in the timing of its landing. In this investigation in order to get the best results possible I shall be doing the experiment 5 times. This will give me a good range of results and a better result as I get a better view of the timing of how long it takes to land with different numbers of paperclips attached to the tail of the paper helicopter. It is always essential to make every investigation of whatever type it is to make sure that it is going to be a fair test.
In order to achieve this I shall only be changing one variable, which I have already established to be of the number of paperclips added to the tail of the paper helicopter. Prediction In the investigation which I shall be doing I think that I will be expecting for the paper helicopter to fall to the ground in a much quicker timing when it has 5 paperclips attached to the tail of it, than it should do when it has either none, 1,2,3,or 4 paperclips attached to the tail of the paper helicopter.
I say this because from the information that I have already been supported by to take this investigation further, it also helps me with my prediction. Using Isaac Newtons law of gravitation, I can easily say that with his theory of objects being pulled downwards by a force called weight, it helps me to explain that when I add more and more paperclips to the tail of the paper helicopter it doesnt just mean that the number of paperclips are increasing but it also means that the mass is also increasing. Causing the paper helicopter to fall downwards and not upwards. Why do I say this?
I say this because an example being is¦ Say if I were to get a balloon and fill it with Helium, due to the helium being placed inside of the balloon we already know that for some reason the balloon seems to go up into the air. This is because Helium is lighter than air causing the gravitational force to pull it upwards and not downwards as the weight is very low. Whereas if we were to place water inside of the helium filled balloon it would be brought back downwards because the weight of the water forces the balloon to be brought back down again. What do I expect in the graph outcome?
It is easily said that when a line graph is drawn out to show the results of the investigation that I am about to carry out, the line should start off near the very top of the y axis. This should be when there are no paperclips attached to the tail of the paper helicopter. Near quite the very end of the x axis should the very last point be drawn, therefore making the plotted points decreasing as it goes along the x and y axis. I think that this graph prediction would go for both the average graph and the graphs for all 5 sets of results, which shall be already obtained by that time.
Equipment (As shown in Diagram 1. 1) Paper Paper clips Stopwatch/Timer Scissors Ruler Diagram 1. 1 Method What should I be doing in order to make this investigation to the highest standard possible? In order to get good results I firstly have to start off by making the paper helicopter. In this experiment I have to look into the needs of safety, I have noticed that none would have to be carried out such as goggles or safety cloaks etc¦ How do I make a paper helicopter? Firstly I am to get a piece of A4 paper. Some may choose for the A4 to be coloured but I will just leave it to be plain.
In our class lesson Mr Findley (our physics teacher,) has given us an information sheet, which includes of the carcass drawing of the paper helicopter. It shows us where to cut and fold and what measurements are involved. Diagram 1. 2 The diagram, which has been drawn above, has not been drawn to scale. Once I draw out the drawing of the paper helicopter on the A4 sheet of paper, carefully done using a ruler of course. I am to cut along and fold along the lines as described: Where the dotted lines are shown this is where we are to fold along, and where the straight solid lines have been drawn in, we are to cut along them.
The cutting of course will be done with a pair of scissors. After they are cut out and folded along, some may find it better and more presentable if they are to be decorate and colour in their paper helicopters! What else is involved in this investigation? Once all of the above has been done we are to set up our equipment out. Having set out the timer, paperclips, and paper helicopter in front of me, I am to make sure that I have drawn out a results table, which I will record the timings down in. (As shown in the results table. ) I will then ask for a little help for getting the timing at the best time possible.
When I went to drop/release the paper helicopter from my hands I realised that I wasnt actually in fact dropping/releasing the paper helicopter from 2 metres of height. In fact I was dropping it from my height with my arms being placed right above my head as high as I could manage. So I then made sure to measure how high I was releasing the paper helicopter from, I found that with the heels of my shoe and my arms being stretched up way above my head I was actually releasing the paper helicopter from a height of 2 metres and 3 centimetres.
I left the measurement of the height I was releasing the paper helicopter at how it was already, because it was getting to the point where it would be getting very time consuming. When dropping the paper helicopter out of my hands I am to make sure that I drop it at the same time that my friend is to say GO, this is so that he can time it with accuracy. When the paper helicopter will land on the ground I will then yell STOP, so that he is able to stop the timer/stopwatch at the right time in order to get the most accurate timing possible.
When I get results for dropping the paper helicopter without any paperclips attached to the tail of it, 5 times, I will make sure that I have written down the timings in my results table. After doing so, I am to attach the first paperclip to the paper helicopter and then do the same thing again. (Drop the paper helicopter, time it, and write down timings in results table. ) After every 5 sets of results with the same number of paperclips attached, I am to add another paperclip to the paperclip, which is already placed on the tail of the paper helicopter.
I shall do this until I have 5 paperclips attached to the tail of the paper helicopter. How the paper clips should be placed has been shown in the diagram below. Diagram 1. 3 Results Table Number Of Paperclips 1st (Time in Seconds) 2nd (Time in Seconds) 3rd (Time in Seconds) 4th (Time in Seconds) 5th (Time in Seconds) Average (Time in Seconds) 08 As you can see, in the results tables above I have gathered all my timings into the table.
Once I had placed all my timings in the table I was to work out the average of each set of timings. To do this I was to add up all of the sets of timings together and then divide it by 5 because that was the number of times I had done the experiment for each set. Here are my workings out towards how I worked out the average for each set of results. Workings out for Average(s) (Please note that / stands for the division sign)
When working out the, I firstly got all my timings for the specific set of results, added them together and divided them by 5, I divided it by 5 because this was the number of times I had timed it falling from the air to the ground. As shown below: Number of paperclips = 0 Timings 1Graphs/Conclusion I have formed out a graph to show the results of the five sets of results. Another graph is shown on the next page, except this is a graph, which shows the averages of all 5 sets of results, which I had gathered in my investigation. From looking at this graph we can easily say that the second set of results stand out the most.
I have re-checked my results and have noticed that none of the outcome results really stand out greatly, as they are all in proportion. This shows me that my experiments had gone very well without making any large genuine mistakes. I think that the 2nd time I did all the results, the timing may not have been stopped at the right time or maybe not started at the right time, causing the timing to be of a much higher outcome than it should have done. There is not really much of a time difference from when there was two paperclips on the tail of the paper helicopter to when there was three paperclips attached to the paper helicopters tail.
Looking back at the result table I can see that there is only a difference of 0. 06 seconds whereas in my other results I have found there to be at least a 0. 10 second difference. It is obviously noticeable that my prediction was to go ahead to be forwardly correct. I can say this with confidence because I had information to back up my prediction, which helped me forward, my ideas towards what should actually happen in my experiment. As said earlier in my prediction, I mentioned that the line would be decreasing down towards the x axis and away from the y axis.
We can see in the graph above that this predicament was proved to be correct. From looking at this averages graph it is easily spoken of that the investigation that I have carried have has gone very well. I say this because as shown above, we can see that the average line is actually going downwards as the number of paperclips had increased on the tail of the paper helicopter. Thus showing that my prediction was right. I was able to make sure that my prediction was quite reliable with backing it up with a hypothesis, which had been concluded, from Isaac Newtons Law of Gravitation.
With the information from this Law of Gravitation I was able to predict that when there is a force being put onto an object from its natural force then it is called weight as it is pulling it downwards. So when I was asked to do an experiment that was involved in placing more and more paperclips to the tail of a paper helicopter I already knew in my mind that the timing of the landing would get shorter and shorter. This was due to general knowledge but also scientific knowledge¦ Isaac Newtons Law of Gravitation. With this scientific explanation we have been able to predict many scientific happenings.
Evaluation I am glad to say that throughout the whole of this investigation I did not make any noticeable, genuine mistakes. I later went on to find out that I was standing at a height of 2 metres and 3 centimetres. This information of course was later found out after I was more than half way through the experiment, so I had to decide whether to go ahead with doing the experiment all at a drop of 2 metres and 3 centimetres or change it and have half the results at 2 metres and 3 centimetres whilst the rest of the results would be obtained from a height of an exact 2 metres.
I had decided that if I were to go on to do this I would not be carrying out a fair test. Although the investigation was asked of a 2 metre drop I still thought that although I had dropped it at an extra 3 centimetres higher it was still a very fair test because I had kept drop height throughout the whole of the investigation. Whilst doing the investigation I had managed to do everything according to how I had written it out to have been done, although sometimes I had to be re-timed as mistakes were made as I sometimes dropped the paper helicopter without being told to!
All in all I think the investigation was carried out well and was a fair test, I made sure that only one variable was changed and that the timing was done at the most accurate timing possible. In order to make it a fair test it also meant that safety was to be involved as well, as far as I was concerned not many safety measures had to be taken, I say this because as mentioned earlier no safety goggles were needed, no hair was really in need of being tied back and no safety cloaks were to be worn.
The only safety we were to be notified was to tuck in our stools so that no accidents were to be caused as the investigations were being held. Looking back at my results I dont really think that there were really any results which were unexpected, there may have been the one or two timings which may have been timed a bit earlier than they should have been but nothing which was really way out of proportion. If I were to do this experiment again I think that I will definitely make sure that I am to drop the paper helicopter at a height of 2 metres and not 2 metres and 3 centimetres!
I shall aim to achieve more results although I feel that I already have a reasonable amount of timings. I think that if I were to do the experiment again I would achieve a very similar set of results, as it would only be from the difference of 3 centimetres.
Bibliography In order to help e forward my ideas I was in need of many sources, in which I found the following helpful¦. 1) www. encarta. co. uk Law of Gravitation 2) The Usborne Illustrated Dictionary of Science. Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Written by; Corrine Stockley, Chris Oxlade and Jane Werthiem. 3) School GCSE Physics book 4) Physics Lesson.