Indigenous Tourism encompasses all tourism product opportunities Cultural Heritage, Adventure, Rural, Leisure, Educational, Arts and Crafts and provision of tourism services2. Indigenous History of the Australian and Hawaiian people The Indigenous cultures of Australia are the oldest living cultural history in the world, going back 50,000 65,000 years3. Their heritage was kept alive by passing their knowledge, arts, rituals and performances from one generation to another3. Similarly, the Indigenous Hawaiians had no form of writing and preserved their history through chants and legends.
Both cultures suffered heavy losses from the discovery of their lands by European explorers, with Indigenous Australians facing trauma such as the stolen generation, and the Native Hawaiians having their culture and language discarded and forced into speaking English and adapting to the European culture45. In more recent times, both cultures have experienced resurgence in encouragement to embrace their cultures. Gatherings and addresses in Australia now acknowledge the original custodians of the land they stand on,6 and there are now Indigenous Australian Football and Rugby League teams, both called the Indigenous All Stars7.
In the 1990s for Native Hawaiians, several factors led to big changes. The majority of sugar and pineapple plantations shut down, while different agricultural crops like macadamias and coffee beans took over. Film and television also contributed to the growth of Hawaiis tourism industry. Similar to the official apology issued to the Aboriginal People by Kevin Rudd in 2008, President Clinton passed a public law in 1993 formally apologizing for the overthrow of the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893. 8 Land is important to Indigenous Australians as it is fundamental to the wellbeing of Aboriginal people.
For Indigenous Australians, the land is the core of all spirituality and this relationship and the spirit of country is central to the issues that are important to Indigenous people today9. In contrary, the Native Hawaiians view family or ohana as important. The ohana provides food, shelter, and education for their children, giving them emotional support, love, and security. 10 Attractions The most popular activities undertaken by tourists who travelled to Australia in 2009 for the purpose of Indigenous tourism were Aboriginal art/craft, visiting Aboriginal sites and attending an Aboriginal performance.
Experiencing Aboriginal art/craft or a cultural display was the most popular activity with 75% of Indigenous Tourism visitors participating in this activity. Second popular was visiting an Aboriginal site with attracted 39% of the visitors, while attending and Aboriginal performance attracted 27% of visitors11. In Hawaii during 2011, Local shop/artisans (71. 3%) were popular with U. S. West visitors, particularly on Kauai (77. 4%), Maui (75. 4%) and Kona (71. 4%); but less so on Oahu (61. 4%), Hilo (42. 6%) or Lanai (19. 8%).
12 Economic Impacts Nationally, the nature-based tourism sector contributes $23 billion to the Australian economy each year. It is estimated that Kakadu and Uluru-Kata Tjuta national parks alone contribute more than $320 million a year to regional economies in the Northern Territory, with about 740 jobs either directly or indirectly associated with park visitation (Gillespie Economics and BDA Group 2008)13 Tourism is one of the few sustainable livelihood activities accessible to rural or remote indigenous Australian communities.
This also means that actual wealth is created, rather than wealth created through Government handouts. 14 Contrary to the positive impacts Indigenous tourism has on Indigenous Australians, tourism in Hawaii isnt as beneficial to its native residents. Most money made through the Indigenous tourism industry goes right back to owners of the land and hotels, who are often foreign as almost every major hotel in Hawaii is owned by foreign investors and is being funded by foreign investment. 15 Environmental Impacts
Indigenous tourism in Australia for the most part has no environmental impact, as most indigenous activities involve respecting the land. Also, the Australian government has worked with the Indigenous Australians to return land to them that was taken over twenty years ago. 16 In Hawaii however, as many foreign investors move to Hawaii to start large business, such as hotel chains or casinos specifically designed to make money off of tourists, many Native Hawaiians have been evicted from their own land to make way for these developments.
The surrounding beaches of Hawaii also become polluted from the boats people use to get to the island, as well as the jet skis people ride along the coastline. 17 Socio-cultural Impacts While the economic and environmental impacts of Indigenous tourism on Indigenous Australians are mostly positive, the socio-cultural impacts arent always positive. Lack of information, false impressions, misinformation, poor communication and poor knowledge can lead to Indigenous Australians feeling as though people arent properly appreciating or respecting their culture.
18 In Hawaii, Native Hawaiians feel alienated from their own land, as it is taken from them and turned into hotels and resorts. Many Native Hawaiians also feel as though their culture is losing meaning as it is being used increasingly more as tool to make more money. 19 Analysis of bias in sources Most sources used in this assignment were Government sites or reports done by experts, which are free from bias and simply present the facts.
However a few sites were written from the perspective of locals in their respective countries and it is likely that these sources were not free from bias as many locals, especially those in Hawaii, who felt quite hostile towards those in the tourism industry. Conclusion Indigenous Tourism in Australia appears to be on the right track, as the Government has and still is working with Indigenous Australians to develop tourism in a way that is considerate of their beliefs and customs.
In Hawaii, however, much work is needed to develop tourism in a way that considers the customs and traditions of the Native Hawaiians, as well as their feelings. Some control of the tourism industry needs to be handed back to the traditional custodians of the land, and more intervention from Governments is needed to protect the environment from pollution and overcrowding. Bibliography Culturalsurvival. org. 2014. The Aloha Industry: For Hawaiian women, tourism is not a neutral industry. | Cultural Survival. [online] Available at: http://www. culturalsurvival. org/ourpublications/csq/article/the-aloha-industry-for-hawaiian-women-tourism-not-a-neutral-industry [Accessed: 3 Mar 2014]. Hawaiitourismauthority. org.
2014. Historical Visitor Statistics Hawaii Tourism Authority. [online] Available at: http://www. hawaiitourismauthority. org/research/reports/historical-visitor-statistics/ [Accessed: 4 Mar 2014]. Indigenous Tourism in Australia. 2014. [pdf] Australian Government. http://www. waitoc. com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Indigenous_Tourism_in_Australia_FINAL. pdf [Accessed: 5 Mar 2014]. Slideshare. net. 2014. Tourism Impacts on Indigenous people. [online] Available at: http://www. slideshare. net/guest809599/tourism-impacts-on-indigenous-people [Accessed: 5 Mar 2014].
Sustainabletourismonline. com. 2014. Indigenous Tourism Sustainable Tourism Online. [online] Available at: http://www. sustainabletourismonline. com/indigenous-tourism [Accessed: 5 Mar 2014]. Waimea. com. 2014. All about Hawaii Culture. [online] Available at: http://www. waimea. com/culture. html [Accessed: 4 Mar 2014]. www. hawaiiactivities. com. 2014. Hawaii tours & activities, fun things to do in Hawaii | HawaiiActivities. com. [online] Available at: http://www. hawaiiactivities. com/ [Accessed: 3 Mar 2014].