The first episode involved the infant exploring the room in the presence of the caregiver. A stranger then entered the room, followed by the discreet departure of the caregiver. The caregiver would then return, and the reaction of the child would be recorded. The stranger would then leave the room. There was 3 clear groups of infants from the recorded results that were collected. One group greeted the mother on her return, this shows that the child was securely attached. Another group showed distress all around the room and rejected the mother on return, this is called an insecure resistant child. The final type of child found from the results was a child that didnt orientate the room in which they were in, and they didnt show any interest in their mothers return. This is called an insecure avoidant child.
Takahashi did another study to find out about attachments between Japanese children and their caregiver. He used 60 middle class Japanese infants all aged 1. They were all raised at home, and were observed in a strange situation. 68% of the results showed that the child was securely attached. The remaining 32% were all resistance insecurely attached. However these results may not be very accurate. This is because all of the results come from children from the same background, so it cannot really be used to generalize the whole of Japan. This means that it had low population validity and cultural bias.
Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg did a similar study to the one by Takahashi but they took results from eight different countries. The results showed important and clear cultural differences. Europe contained the most countries that had securely attached relationships and the least amount of resistants. This shows that the study done by Takahashi was not reliable at all, because it only looked at one culture and one type of child from one background. This shows massive cultural differences and population validity, which means it cannot be generalized for everybody else. The three studies all had different results, mostly showing that the majority of the infants involved were securely attached.