Mesozoic Era Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 08:06:56
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Birds are one of the most abundant species on earth. In fact, the global population of birds has already reached five hundred billion according to most recent survey. History shows that birds evolved from meat-eating (theropod) dinosaurs during the Mesozoic Era, roughly 150 million years ago. Early birds, like Archaeopteryx, had teeth in their mouth and claws on their wings. Among all the species of birds existing nowadays, there are some that can be considered as superb over the others in terms of the characteristics and attributes that they possess. Of all the birds currently living, Emu and pelicans are among the most amazing ones.

Emu is the worlds heaviest bird weighing 260 pounds almost weighing like a human. However, even though it is the heaviest of all, it can still run at a rate of 40 miles per hour. On the other hand, what is amazing about the pelican is that its huge beak can hold up to 30 pounds of water which is its enough supply while traveling. Other attributes like the feather color varies with species, ranging from pale pink to crimson or vermilion. Birds like Flamingos characterize a pink or reddish color that comes from the rich sources of carotenoid pigments (like the pigments of carrots) in the algae and small crustaceans that the birds eat.

Unlike people who spend most of their time working, birds spend most of their time looking for food. In fact, birds can eat up to 300 small insects per day which is equivalent to their body weight. Most birds are insectivores (insect eaters) while some birds, like owls and eagles are carnivores (meat-eaters). There are also some birds that rely on plants for food like the hummingbird, grouse and Canada goose. Lastly, birds like starlings are omnivores (plant and meat eater while birds like toucan are fructivore (fruit eaters) Similar to a human, birds also need oxygen to live especially when they are flying.

Birds use the oxygen from their lungs to help them fly at the highest speed possible. They also need a strong circulatory system, including a powerful heart in order to circulate the oxygen in their body. In fact, a birds heart beats much faster than a human heart does. As a proof, birds like hummingbirds have a heart that beats about 1,000 times each minute. It is quite far from that of a humans heart that only beats about 60-90 times each minute. All birds are forward flyers and they can also self repair their wings. The only backwards and sideways flyer is the hummingbird which is 2.

5 inches long and weighing only 0. 06 oz. On the other side, it is the hummingbirds that lay the smallest bird eggs. They always lay 2 eggs at a time, each having the size of a persons small fingernail. Eyewitness: Reptiles Reptiles are one of the largest and longest living creature on earth. The most important characteristic of reptiles is its ability to absorb oxygen in water through the membranes if its mouth. Even though reptiles have jaws, it does not permit chewing and food can only be squeezed and swallowed. Among all kinds of reptiles living, the lizard and snakes group is the largest.

Unlike the snakes, lizards are four legged animals with a long tail. Snakes on the other hand, came from a different kind of lizard that lost their legs. This is through the process of evolution that happened billions of years ago Like some species of reptiles, lizards exemplify amazing characteristics. Many lizards can shed their tail to escape from predators and if their tail has been cut, they can easily grow a new one. In addition, some lizards tongues are longer than their entire bodies and they use it to clean their eyes. Color also adds beauty to the lizards characteristics.

Some lizards, such as the chameleon, can change colors to blend into their environment. This camouflage helps to protect themselves from predators and they can even use it to attract their food. Like the lizards, snakes also exemplify superb characteristics. Aside from their long and slender bodies, snakes have the ability to swallow their food without even crushing it. This is due to the snakes ability to stretch its mouth up to the size of its food. The bigger the snake is, the bigger the food that it can swallow and the toxic it is, the more dangerous it would be.

The most venomous snake ever recorded in the history is the sea snake that can kill its prey easily in a minute or even less. On the other hand, the worlds longest snake is the reticulated python that can measure several feet. In the reptile kingdom, it is the Komodo dragon that is considered as the longest and one of the venomous. It can measure up to 13 feet and its saliva is very toxic. Lastly, in terms of long life, it is the Eastern Box turtle that wins the title as the only reptile that can live for a century. Eyewitness: Fish

The fish kingdom is one of the creatures that have amazing characteristics. Like all vertebrates, fishes have sense organs that tell them what is happening in their environment. The organs enable them to see, hear, smell, taste, and touch. In addition, almost all fishes have a special sense organ called the lateral line system, which enables them to touch objects at a distance. Like any other else, fishes are equipped with their own protection system against predators and other dangers. Some fishes when predator is around would hide their young in their mouths for several minutes without swallowing them.

Some fishes are able to produce light by a chemical process called bioluminescence (which means life light) Fishes glow for many different reasons. First, they may need to identify other members of their species in near-total darkness, deep in the ocean, so they can find a mate. Second, they glow to scare away a coming predator. Fishes like a puffer fish scares away its enemies by gulping down water and inflating itself to appear much larger. The porcupine fish, a close relative of the puffer fish, has many prickly spines sticking out of its body that can scare its enemies away.

Several kinds of fishes are characterized by their special abilities. Cat fish can stay on the land for 12 hours. Scorpion fish is very poisonous and have deadly spikes while some fishes can lay 3 hundred million eggs in one time. Fishes like salmons can journey up to hundreds or even thousands of miles long. The longest known trip was made by a Chinook salmon that went 2,400 miles. Unlike other fishes, salmons tend to come back to the same stream in which they were born because they know that it is a safe place for their young to grow up. Another amazing fish is the flatfish.

During their metamorphosis, flatfish undergo a 90° tilt to one side or the other to become the bottom-adapted adult flatfish. The eye on the down side is pushed over to the top side. Thus, vestibular and oculomotor coordinate systems rotate 90° relative to each other. Meanwhile, sea horses are probably the best known for their roles of being a father, as one of the only species of animal where the male becomes pregnant and gives birth. Female sea horses insert their eggs into the males pouch where they are fertilized and held until they hatch.

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