Politically the differences are how they inhabited each area. One of the main differences is that the Mongols would normally invade those in areas in which were left under native rule except for China. In the 13th century around 1211-1214 the Mongols invaded China. They put restrictions on their rules but tried to keep the culture as traditional going as much as possible. But they did make a clear path from Europe to China known as the Silk Road. In The Middle east there ruler of the realm of Persia went to war with the Caliphs 1255, by 1258 the capture Baghdad and Iraq and killed everyone there instead of building up there empire among the people like in china the totally took out a most of the population.
Along with the regulations they put on china came the difference of religion in China they convert to Islam, Oman Catholicism, but many other religions were tolerated in china and also Buddhism was one religion that survived all through the Mongol rule. But in the Middle East unlike China they were ruled under Ilkhanate of Persia and ran under the religion of Hulegu. Economically, there were many similarities between the Middle East and China. Both area encouraged long distance trade. This boosted the economy, since the Mongols were Nomadic they cannot increase money very well so they imperialized to increase their wealth.
In China raw goods, technology, ideas, and of course gun powder were all key trade items for the Mongols. Gunpowder is what put the Mongols more on top. Another Similarity is that they fixing irrigation and plumbing as well as improving roads the irrigation and plumbing were for cleanliness but improving roads as well as for major communications throughout the world. Another Major thing is that the Mongols spread the plague and other diseases throughout both regions because the trade routes were filthy the disease spread through rat bites they came in with the flees as well but wiping out the Mongols was the lead poising which wiped them all out.
There are many similarities and differences between China and the Middle East under Mongol rulings, politically and economically. Politically some differences are how the Mongols inhabited these areas as well as how they dealt with religious rights. Economically, some similarities are that they encouraged, long distance trade, they improved roads, as well as spreading disease throughout both these areas. This shows that different people living under the same ruler are always ruled a little differently but disease wiped everyone out in the end.