Affirmative action benefited the higher education since social and intellectual development of both minority and non-minority students are improved in ethnically and racially diverse educational settings (American Psychological Association, 1999, p. 1). One outcome, for instance, is the increase in the numbers of students belonging to ethnic minorities who grow to be student peers of majority students. The Nations Health, on the other hand, also benefited from affirmative action in the sense that much can be medically learned from the racial and ethnic groups that will consequently result to the benefit of every Americans.
For instance, despite the fact that ethnic minority Americans usually experience poorer physical condition than non-minorities, yet in several cases and even in the face of extreme poverty rates and other risks to health, these groups experience lesser levels health problems, particularly chronic disease, which can be the basis for several medical research (American Psychological Association, 1999, p. 1). The Need of Persistent Implementation of Affirmative Action
Decades ago, an African-American mother was three times as expected to die of complications in the course of childbirth as white mother, and at present she is over three times as expected to die in the course of her childbirth (Richey, 2003). The mortality rate for blacks was twice that for whites, and at present it is a little over twice as whites (Richey, 2003). From 1978 to present, four times as many African-American families survived with incomes lower than the poverty line than white families. For black teens, the unemployment rate is thrice that of whites, and for black adults it is twice as whites.
Unfortunately at present, every statistics relatively remained unchanged. In 1978, African-American corresponded to 11. 5 percent of the United States population, but they were only 1. 2 percent of the judges and lawyers, 2. 3 percent of the dentists, 2 percent of the physicians, 2. 6 percent of university and college professors, and 1. 1 percent of the engineers (Richey, 2003). At present, blacks correspond to roughly 12. 3 percent of the countrys population, and are 5. 1 percent of the judges and lawyers, 4. 1 percent of dentists, 5. 6 percent of physicians, 6. 1 percent of university and college professors, and 5.
5 percent of engineers (Richey, 2003). Although such statistics proved that affirmative action has helped to strengthen the black professionals ranks, yet African-American in general has been left behind. Notwithstanding all the discussions of the establishment of a black middle class, the position of the black community to white American has relatively remained the same. As such, affirmative action must be continually asserted to put in place mandatory and voluntary efforts by local, state, and federal governments, schools, and private employers to combat inequalities and encourage fair hiring and promotions of qualified individuals.
Reverse Discrimination Stimulated by annoyed white men, a reaction against affirmative action started to accumulate. To conservatives, the system opened the door for education, promotions, or employments to minorities and at the same time, closed the door on whites. Conservatives resented the thought that a number of incompetent minorities were receiving blanket advantages on the American system (Brunner, 2007). Quotas and preferential treatment turned into contempt expressions. Even more controversial was the allegation that a number of minorities benefited from playing the part of professional victim.
By the late 70s, deficiencies in the policy started to show up in the course of its excellent objectives. In 1978, reverse discrimination became a concern, exemplified by the celebrated Bakke case (Brunner, 2007). Because of a certain medical schools separate admissions policy for minorities and reservation of 18 out of 100 places for minority students, the school had been rejecting Allan Bakke, a white male, for two years in a row and in its place had accepted less competent minority applicants. Because of unjust discrimination against a white applicant, the Supreme Court banned affirmative action programs rigid quota systems.
However, in the same ruling, the Court sustained affirmative actions legality per se. The dispute concerning affirmative action has as well grown more difficult and murky as the public has come to realize its complexity. Several liberals, for instance, can appreciate the prejudice of affirmative action given that white employees with seniority were laid off, whereas black workers often retained their jobs. Many conservatives, on the other hand, were pushed to get a hold of a better option to the imposition of a stringent quota system.