In 968 to 1976, he joined an elite model school, and later he was exposed to Muslim unity teaching at Saudi schools and universities. Before the formation of alameda, Osama used to be a member of MAK 0rganizations led by Assam, which le left in 1988 after strategic differences with its leaders. According to Laden, he wanted an organization that would train, equip and lead its Arab soldiers to battles with the aid of Arab soldiers. Their differences came from Assam persistence to include the Arab fighters among the Afghan fighting groups. Instead of creating their independent fighting groups.
Laden was not impressed with the idea and in 1990, he returned to Saudi Arabia as a jihad warrior, who was highly appreciated after helping bring down Soviet Union. At the same time, Iraq soldiers attacked Kuwait and bin laden was notified of the plan to fight back by non-Muslim soldiers, and offered to assist. However, he shunned the presence of non-Muslims fighters i. e. the American soldiers considering that the war was near the two holy cities Mecca and Medina. He started criticizing the Saudi leadership, a reason that made loyal family unhappy. They tried to silence him, hence he had no other option other escape to Sudan.
He then started recruiting and training his soldiers, with the aid Sudanese government and family members. It is in Sudan where al Qaeda was born. Al Qaeda has been linked to several attempted attacks on U. S. these include: the 1992 bombing of the Gold Minor hotel in Yemen, which was intended to kill American soldiers staying in the hotel, on their to Somalia. Secondly, the organization was also linked to 1998 U. S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. Lastly, the evidence reveals that Al Qaeda and bin laden were involved in September 11 attacks on U. S. , though no hard evidence was gotten.
POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS: Terrorism is an occurrence, which can be overcome by clearly examining the conditions under which it occurs. These is attributed to fury and desperation that leaves them with no other option other terrorism and violence, no amount sanctions and war can quench these thirst.
This leaves U. S. with only one option other to negotiate or at least giving in to their grievances. Instead of opting for double standards where it is in the forefront to punish those who violate human rights, yet when it comes to cases to Muslims human rights violation it gives a deaf ear. As long as the U. S.does not negotiate for peace between the Islamic and warring parties, then this problem is there to stay. At the same time, there is need to other countries in the fight against terrorism in terms of financial, military and relief provision, and at least to counter their moves as they are over the world.
REREFERENCES Augustus Richard Norton (2007). Hezbollah: A Short History, Princeton University Press, New York. Emerson, S. (2002), American Jihad: The Terrorists Living Among Us, Free Press, Chicago. Hakan Ozoglu (1996) State-Tribe Relations: Kurdish Tribalism in the 16th- and 17th- Century Ottoman.
Empire, British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, London. James L. Gelvin (2005), the Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Laurence F. Bove, Laura Duhan Kaplan (1995), From the Eye of the Storm: Regional Conflicts and the Philosophy of Peace, Rodopi Press, Rodopi. Magnus Ranstorp (1996). Hezbollah in Lebanon: The Politics of the Western Hostage Crisis. St. Martins Press, Richard N. Haass (2005), Office of the Policy Planning Staff: Remarks to the World Affairs Council of Northern California, San Francisco, California.