In the P2P network uploading the file is not necessary you can easily share the file with a person. P2P allows clients to share files online throughout some unofficial network that can be provided by both the users using the same download software. File sharing gives you access to a wide variety of information. Copyrighted material, pornography or viruses are all just a click away. (Ardenghi, Jorge and Javier Echaiz) On a daily basis numerous users share files with each other online. Be it music, games, softwares, videos etc. Software that can connect people to each other is usually freely available.
Although these software are freely available over the internet they come with great risk, for example when sharing files with users, the user can use the same program to access information which you do not mean to share with people over the network. You can also download copyrighted material that could put you into legal problems. Or you may unsuspectingly download pornography when it is named something else. Also sometimes closing the window may not actually close the program and this could actually put you into a greater security risk.
These always on connections are an invitation for users and sometimes hackers and preachers to access your private information and use it to their advantage (Sebastian Rupley, pp. 1). Importance of P2P: P2P networking has generated load of interest over the internet in a very short span of time. Daily thousands of people become part of this network. P2pP software systems like Kazaa and Napster are the most highly ranked and most commonly available P2P programs. Several businesses and websites have been promoting peer-to-peer technology to be the future of the Internets world of networking
Having existed for many years now, P2P technologies promise to radicalize the word of networking. Although P2P file sharing software has created a lot of controversy over the legality issues as well as its fair use (Erik, pp. 1). P2P sharing has become the single most famous internet application over the past 10-15 year. Although people see it as P2P file sharing rather than P2P networking. To access the world of P2P networking a user just has to install a suitable P2P client application. Several P2P software and P2P networks applications subsist.
Some P2P functions work only with a single P2P system, while others functions cross-network. Similarly, some P2P networks sustain only one request, while others sustain numerous requests. The importance of P2P can be seen from the fact that daily a lot of people are entering into the world of P2P sharing. P2P allows for quicker file sharing between users and it has become the household name for computer users all around the globe (Erik, pp. 1). Every passing day the importance of P2P is increasing at a rapid speed. Important files are shared over a P2P network.
This save a lot of time that is wasted in attempt to first uploading the file over the internet and then allowing for the user to download the files from the link. When the users computer acts as an online server there is no need to upload the material over the internet first for the other user to download it. Now the user himself can download or share the data directly from the other users computer. This has solved a lot of issues like shortage of space. Plus most P2P software allow for continuation of download in case the software collapses or if the link is broken for some reason.
The file does not have to be downloaded over and over again. (Duchechene, Anne and Patrick Waelbroeck, 565-570) Meaning to the Average American: Today to the average American the use of P2P sharing for downloading songs, videos, software, game etc has become part of their household. Research has shown that 60% of the young Americans downloading things of the internet are over the age of 12 and are mostly in their teenage. The young American teenager has been affected the most the P2P sharing around the world as clearly shown by the stats (Scholastic, 10).
It means a great deal to the average American for the simple fact that the average American is able to save a lot on the downloading of free music from over the internet, even though there is enough awareness over the internet as this being illegal. But still as long as you dont get trapped who minds if its illegal. The average American downloads at least 20 files at an average on a daily basis using their P2P software. In America the most commonly used software is Napster which is accessible free over the internet.
A typical American is involved more in downloading illegal stuff instead of making use of this advancement of technology constructively. This sharing method is being used somewhat constructively in business environments where important data is being shared without having to be uploaded. Also this method saves a lot of space on the computer and also saves a lot of valuable bandwidth and time from being wasted. In case of the average American this is just a way of downloading free music, software, games etc. The average American who makes use of the P2P network mostly belongs to the teenage.
These individuals spend most of their time downloading free music which is mostly illegal as it is copyright material and people sharing such music should be punished. But most of the times these individuals who are sharing these files are not from the US but in fact belong to some country where piracy is not that big a crime or is not punishable. These people easily share pirated material over the sharing software and the average American is more than happy to make use of the material as it does not cost them money (Scholastic, 75).
Mostly the average American is aware of the intellectual property rights and he also knows that it is an act which is punishable by the US law but still they do not refrain from illegal file sharing as it is cheap and it is hard to detect, and what is hard to detect is hard to punish. Most of the average Americans are also aware that this is theft of intellectual property rights and it is same as stealing from someone. As when the music is transferred using file transfer or P2P software, the singer or the real owner of the music does not get any loyalty for it.
Also the average American uses it to download pornography. This is something that the average user of the P2P in America watches. These are young individuals who are still in their teenage (well at least over 60% of them are). These individuals firstly use the internet without supervision which gives them the authority to do whatever they like over the internet and with the advancement of the P2P software they do not have to search much, they just have to make use of their P2P software, search for the required item and there it is, ready for them to download and watch.
The P2P software that is being used mostly does not have a restriction clause in them or do not warn viewer about the age limit before they download the files for viewing. The advance broadband internet technology also make it easy and quicker for these young P2P file users to download pornography and watch it, with the new software they can even stream it while it downloads. Influence of P2P on American Pop culture (music, movies, TV shows etc) The birth of pop took place in the downtown sanctions of New York City at the end of the disco era.
The new age music caught the attention of those MCs, who were capable of lyrically painting tapestries of anecdotes that were witty and stylized autobiographies. A pop prodigy was accompanied by a DJ who was able to produce a unique sound to go along with the lyrical flow. The beginning of Pop began when the Music composers introduced a DJ and tried to keep the attention of the crowd when introducing the next DJ. Before long this became a common practice where an MC was performing with a particular DJ, one example is Will The Fresh Prince Smith and DJ Jazzy Jeff.
In 1979, a huge fan following for pop had developed along with entry of new comers, which secured the hold of pop on the music industry. In 1990 gangsta rap a sub-category of pop was developed. A lot of argument was made on the lyrics used as encouraging brutality, promiscuity and the utilization of drugs. The culture of pop is a challenging culture to some extent. It is a way to express the fight in opposition to the ethnic unfairness against the white Americans.
So this makes it a way of expression for the African Americans and obviously a defending act for the way to communicate for their racial differences. A P2P computer system utilizes assorted connectivity of users and accumulative bandwidth rather than sharing resources provided by low number of servers. The important thing in understanding a P2P network is that all customers offer equivalent resources. Computer users with the same type of P2P application can remotely access each others hard drives and can share files
Such a network is useful in many purposes, mostly known for file sharing containing audio, video or any kind of data available in digital format. One of the oldest and commonly known P2P file sharing software is Kaaza. Its file trading music tool was the number one search engine of 2003 as music and multimedia continues to dominate Americas online mindshare as reported this week by tech news world. Nowadays, its clear that Kaaza and other such softwares are most popular mainstream culture for file sharing.
The problem with this is that music and all the other industries are worried that why would anyone actually pay for an album or a movie when anyone and everyone can get it online for free. Sharing of movies, music albums and TV shows is becoming very common among amateurs. One influence this has on American culture is that some books or movies which are for specific age are now available to children of all ages as keeping a tap over their downloading activities has become impossible. Now a thirteen year old kid can easily get any rated movie by just giving the wrong information about his age.
The culture is tied together by the links. Culture from all around the world have borrowed and also contributed to the jargon of pop and also changed the meaning of some words to fit their own use. Some consider the language of pop to be rude, sexist, violent, focusing on the darker aspects of the society, and also considered as being nothing more than a bunch of babble. But being able to climb the tower of babble; making use of the process of abstraction, will help us understand as to why the language of pop has become so forceful in todays society.
Abstraction is the process whereby we reach a point where we ignore a great amount of stimuli and focus on a limited few; classifying it according to the characteristics and the reality of our experiences through a unique filter system which is influenced by our cultural and personal experiences. Possible P2P copyright violation and security problem: Numerous studies have shown that sharing of file has had an unconstructive blow on record sales. As already discussed Sharing of movies, music albums and TV shows is becoming very common among amateurs. Such distribution hardly brings any income to the producer.
One biggest possible copyright violation problem brought in my P2P networks in another such network known as Anonymous P2P network in which users are anonymous by default. This P2P network is specially becoming famous due to many reasons including data retention and lawsuits against bloggers. Such networks may also hold appeal to user who wishes to share copyrighted files like music movies etc. Users who normally use anonymous P2P networks usually require secrecy as to the contents they put on sharing which may my include material which is not only illegal but also incriminating.
One of the first P2P system, Napster was shut down in 2001 by some major entertainment firms on the basis that as these file sharing system made it possible to not only share files but also to make illegal copies of copyrighted material while others are still running. According to survey conducted by MPAA, the movie industry lost around 6. 1 billion which is 75% higher than they predicted. In the US alone the movie studios lost 1. 3 billion in 2005. Unauthorized services that allow data as free download to other users such as songs, music and movies is blamed for falling sales.
Security problems that arise by P2P networks can cause companies to lose millions worth of source code due to disguising files using P2P technologies. P2P covering tools, such as Wrapstar (a freeware service which can cover a . zip file with corporation resource code, as an MP3 of a song hit) as a result an accessory outside the company can use Morpheus to download the disguised file. To the companies security this looks like a common transaction, even if the company has frowned upon employees using P2P in music sharing without a clue that their company has just been robbed, and possibly millions worth of software has been lost.
Another security risk involving P2P networking allows your network to be open to various forms of attack, break-in, and espionage. P2P does not carry new virus to the system, just common threats such as virus attacks and worms. One major risk of P2P network is unconsciously allocating files that are confidential. (Banerjee, Anirban, Faloutsos, Michalis, and Laxmi Bhuyan, 1273-1275) Laws kept up with changing technology: Private property is mainly known as the original way to present ideas, may it be the symbols and words. All this is represented as products or services of an individual.
Music is also included in such a property. Copyright defines the rules for ones owned property. May it be novels or poems, films or musical works? These all are includes on literary and artistic works. Artist work can include the photography, paintings, illustrations, sculptures or drawings or any kind of architectural designs. Copyrights are compulsory on any kind of trademarks or patents. P2P is the mainly notorious action on the internet these days. The industry now is using latest strategies; including advising ISPs (internet service providers) to slash off the accounts of customers who are common sharers of files. Gaspary, Luciano Paschoal, 4797) According to the FCC, the federal law is desecrated if vulgar programming is aired at any time. The contents are ought to be obscene, when it succeeds throughout 3 divided checks. Concerning modern principles to a usual individual, it has to be created, as an entire, attractive to the prurient attention; portray or illustrate, in a deliberately unpleasant technique, sexual behavior particularly classified by appropriate regulation; and deficiency of severe legendary, imaginative, supporting, or methodical importance.
The FCC has described transmit offensiveness as language or material that, in context, depicts or describes, in terms patently offensive as measured by contemporary community standards for the broadcast medium, sexual or excretory organs or activities. (M. Fattah, Hassan, pg 44). It does not, however, augment to the echelon of vulgarity. Conclusion: When it comes to downloading software, it is easily done through P2P software. Using the P2P software the average American also downloads software for free, software for which in normal circumstances they have to pay a fee.
This too is an illegal activity but something that has not been looked in to as deeply as the issue of the download of illegal music using the P2P software. This is mainly because the download of music over the internet is something that is measurable and not a lot of average American users are interested in downloading software from the internet. Although all good things come with some disadvantages, p2p sharing is one of them. It is very easy to just search up files and download the. But it is an illegal act.
Because many files are copyrighted, and since there rights are preserved, it is ethically wrong to go against them. American pop culture is affected in such a way that, many people take the disadvantage of it, but breaking the official rights of the music. Pop music is now a culture in many countries. This culture is effecting the youth in such a way that they are now more in to bad deeds, rather than right ones. Intellectual property illustrates nicely that property is a legal right rather than a physical thing.
Intellectual property applies to allow owners to exclude others from intangible resources like certain secrets that businesses have, the copying of various creative expressions, and the reproducing of inventions and marks that identify the producers of goods and services. Property is a legal right to exclude, not a physical thing, and the object of a property copyright includes the reproduction of music for commercial profit. The market resource is diminished for the copyright owner when file sharers misappropriate music