Moreover, Evidence is presented of the extent to which libraries from around the world are experiencing financial hardship as a result of the world-wide economic downturn (Nicholas et al, 2010). the cutting of council spending on public libraries, owing to the economic downturn, has lead to the failure so that technology and services can not meet the demand of patrons (Public Library New, 2012). These problems are making fewer and fewer people visit public libraries currently, causing the waste of public resources.
Thus, surveying the satisfaction of public libraries is necessary, because it will help us to understand the condition of current public libraries in order to better operate them to keep up with the society. 1. 2 Modern Public Library Public libraries do not just serve lending books or offer a place for reading, and they could also be centers of advice on council service, small business supporting sources and centers of community activities with self-service circulation produces (Public Library Report, 2004). A good public library should also offer a credible access for everyone to health and current vital information 3 (Wooden, 2006).
Therefore, a good operating public libraries could bring many benefits to a community and also contributed to the economy of the community. Small businesses need library resources to succeed, and as part of government service. , facilitating the economy of their communities are their duty. The American public library experience told us the new trend of libraries. The wiring of public libraries has transformed one of the nations most established community resources into a critical digital hub, where users can compete more effectively for jobs, improve their health, find key government services, and manage their finances.
And computer and Internet access allow librarians to go beyond library stacks to connect users to all of the resources, services and tools available online (Nishi, 2011). 1. 3 Value of Research Because of the internet, public libraries are not the attractive place any more, especially to adult users. According to BBC News (2011), the number of visits to UK libraries declined 22. 77 million over the last 5 years and represents a 6. 7% drop. Even though there was vast information available in the internet, most of people thought the public library was a essential and important role, affecting the society (Wooden, 2006).
Therefore, public library still possess huge influence until now. In this research dissertation, the research subject will be Exeter Central Library in Exeter, UK. As a flagship public library in Exeter, the Central Library is a good sample for survey. Because there are many public libraries of cities, like Exeter Central Library, the findings of survey can be applied to many similar flagship public libraries either. In addition, according to the Exeter Central Library website (2012), Central Library has been carrying on the project 21st century library since November 2011, so this research dissertation can contribute itself.
4 1. 4 Aim of Research To make Exeter Central Library run more effectively and defend its reputation, this survey will mainly focus on three fields, which are digital offerings, technology for convenience, and customers service, in public libraries to find the satisfaction of the Library. After of all, the literature about public libraries will be referenced. Then the research methodology will be introduced, and applied on these three area. By analyzing the information and data on these three dimensions in Exeter Central Library.
Finally, the dissertation will conclude the comprehensive performances of this library and suggest the direction of improvement in the future. Chapter 2 Literature Review 2. 1 Background of UK Public Library UK public libraries have always been essential in the UK society for over 150 years. Local governments in the UK totally spend over ? 1 billion on the public library service every year (Davies, 2008). Although local authorities value this service and know the importance of public libraries, the funding of public libraries have always existed problems in the UK history, especially in recent years.
Hammond (2009) deemed, because the main funding of public libraries was from their local authorities, public libraries always needed to compete with other public services for tax revenues. Thus, in order to save costs and offer better services, public libraries aim to maximize the usage among local people and reflect the needs of local societies. Current public libraries provide various services and shoulder a variety of roles. As Berry (2011) reckon, public libraries should offer electronic books, online content and video, not just 5 printed materials.
Many public libraries are trying to become vital in technical and research information sources, particularly for the small businesses in local communities (Pankle, 2010). The services to small businesses are indispensable. The relationship between public libraries and small businesses is symbiotic, so public libraries thrives when the taxes, which mainly depends on small businesses, are sufficient, while the good services public libraries offer in return assist the local small businesses grow (ibid).
2. 2 Importance of Satisfaction Assessment As we all know, if organizations want to use their resources effectively or meet the customers needs, they will all need performance measurement. For public libraries, because they produce service only, meeting the communitys need is the first thing (Moore, 1989). Public libraries are important to communities and to operate public libraries reasonably and successfully, we need to do survey to understand the condition of each public library.
Libraries in different places need to meet different needs, so presenting the priority services and reflecting the demands of communities by assessing satisfaction are necessary (21 Century Library, 2004). Surveying a public library by patrons satisfaction feedback survey is in return a good way to evaluate the service and operating condition of public libraries. 2. 3 Satisfaction Assessment of Public Library 2. 3. 1 E-book The definition of e-books is books in the electronic format and downloaded in the internet (Garrod, 2005). The advent of e-books impact not only the 6.
publishing industry and also peoples reading habits in recent years. Public libraries are recognizing the importance on e-books or digital material in the future, and for public libraries, E-books are No. 1 now on the list to users (Brynko, B, 2012). As part of assessment criteria for public libraries, E-books have increasingly become more important in recent years. Public libraries have invested in the digital materials for a long time, which helps them reduce the cost and serve better for patrons (Rosenblatt, 2004). It is clear that E-books have made a great progress over the last decade.
Although it is still a small portion in the publishing industry, it is noted that 6. 5% of books were published in electronics format in the America in 2010 (Breeding, 2011). But the rapid growing E-books publishing is truly a trend currently. As we have noted, e-book lending services are becoming a major part of public libraries and public libraries realize that e-books service attract more users to public libraries (ibid). The Library Journal reported that students are tending to use electronic reference books. Furthermore, e-books need less space to store and offer books to remote users (Joss, 2011).
2. 3. 2 Technology Technology has influence every aspect of our life and technology also become an indicator of a good public library. Do you recommend a device with Android or Mac OS to get library resources online? has always been asked in libraries, which pushes libraries to develop the newest technology to meet the demand of patrons. Internet is the basic technology in public libraries. With the rising of smart phones, e-Reader and tablets, public libraries are trying to build websites, which can be shown on all kinds of devices (Breeding, 2011).
According to Helgren and Lietzau (2011), all public libraries serving more than 25,000 had most basic online services and 80% of libraries serving 10,000 provided patrons online access to their accounts in the united state. The 7 technology devices or system for convenience is mainly consisted by the internet service (including WIFI), online public access catalogue, and self-service technology. Because patrons want convenient and efficient ways more than before within the technology society, the technology in libraries are indispensable (SELCO, 2006).
The self-service circulation produces are increasingly common. For example, patrons can check out, renewal and return books, interacting with self-machines (breeding, 2011). Self-service can help patrons reduce queues and it will also increase opening hours for customers, which are highly desirable (Brady & Kearsey, 2009). 2. 3. 3 Customer service Public sector organizations realized customer service is a critical issue in the late 1990s and found the difficulty in measuring the service quality (Wisniewski & Donnelly, 1996). According to Tuban et al.
(2002), customer service is a series activity to meet customers expectation for enhancing customers satisfaction. Nowadays, the customer centered philosophy has been realized and applied in most of organizations, which occupies a significant position to customer satisfaction (Dehghan et al, 2012). In addition, librarians with professional expertise are crucial today, they build the quality service in promoting the authority of library (Pankl, 2010). Good customer service experiences for users bring a good image to libraries and attract people come again next time, so it should be emphasized and exist everywhere.
2. 4 Customer satisfaction According to Kotler (2010). Satisfaction means a persons feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a products perceived performance (or outcome) in relation to his or her expectations. Customer 8 satisfaction facilitate a positive effect on profitability of organizations. Customers who are satisfied at the products or services became the foundation of a successful organization (Hoyer & MacInnis, 2001). Furthermore, customer satisfaction leads to customer loyalty, which is the ultimate objective of business (Bowen & Chen, 2001).
According to McIiroy and Barnett (2000), when developing a customer loyalty process, the most important thing to consider is customer satisfaction. The customer loyalty brings a sustainable contribution to the organizations. Thus, Improving customer satisfaction is important and the object is to minimize customer expectation and service performance (Pham, et al. , 2010) Thus, understanding the expectation of patrons is the first step for organizations. It is a regular activity for organizations to survey the customers satisfaction views (Malik, 2012).
Although public libraries are not for-profit business, the customer satisfaction is also a issue they are concerned. By collecting the customer satisfaction data on public libraries, public libraries know what patrons want and a variety of interests of users from different background to propose new objects and goals (Hartmann, 2008). In addition, there are two perspectives for viewing library service. The first one is service encounter satisfaction, which means customer satisfaction with one specific service and the other is called overall service satisfaction, which assess the whole satisfaction of libraries (Fleming, 1993). 2.
5 Delivering Customer Value To offer better value to patrons, the establishment of public library standard has always been discussion. The advent of IFLA (the International Federation of Library Association and Institutions) which is continuing to find suitable standards for most libraries (Lynch & Yang, 2004). For a public library, hiring a right staff is a start of delivering a good customer service. The staff should be 9 prepared to committed to serving patrons and forthright about local culture. In addition, staff should have a basic knowledge to deal with problems of new technology in public libraries (Hage & Neal, 2003).
Although the economy is hard and the funding for public libraries is limited. Maybe we can not improve facilities and technology, but librarians can be energetic and always smile to the patrons they serve (Casey & Stephens, 2009). Libraries can deliver high-quality service by following some programmes. For example, the public library of Charlotte & Mecklenburg County developed a service excellence program for collecting consultancy from patrons and setted up customers service training and recognition programme to lever up the service (Articlesbase, 2009).
Today, many public libraries think they should compete with commercial content providers by offering lastest content, which is not necessary. What the public libraries need to do is offer unparalleled user experience, which is more valued by patrons (Schmidt, 2010). 2. 6 Performance Satisfaction Survey Public sector including public libraries invested more spending on the market research than before, but the methodology they focus is just provision service assessment. According to Skelcher (1992), the limitation of satisfaction survey the public libraries do are focused on the existing services, not customers needs.
These surveys count the annual circulation of book like product enterprises or estimate the efficience between outputs and inputs in libraries, ignoring the crucial patrons (Hammond, 2009). Another problem facing public library managers is how to do the research cost-effective, but comprehensive (Wisniewski & Donnelly, 1996). The SERVQUAL model, which measure the difference between the expected service and perceived service, is a good solution to these situations (Dehghan et al. , 2012). Although the SERVQUAL is widely used in measuring service quality, but this method has its own problems.
10 (Shanhin, 2010). One is that the differentiation of customers for public services, because this methodology dont tell us know how to distinguish the customers from different background for survey as a group. The other problem is that when people come to a public library, they just think traditional and basic services and expect nothing more. Thus, the expectation of patrons are low and public libraries in the UK usually match their demands (Wooden, 2006) Chapter 3 Primary Research Report
My question is to find the satisfaction situation on Exeter Central Library, and because of limited resources I own in the UK and the lack of customer satisfaction survey reference of current public libraries, my satisfaction survey will focus on patrons, not public libraries themselves, which will be more easy to survey and more accurate to reflect patrons views. So what should do is to collect the data about the satisfaction condition on the Exeter Central Library users and nearby residents. After determining the aim, I carried out the plan of survey. 3.
1 Methodology survey is a methodology associated with positivism and questionnaire is a methods in the survey methodology. Because this survey need to test the condition of customer satisfaction on Exeter Central Library, it is a descriptive survey, which means aim to find the an accurate result of phenomena. Questionnaires are one of the methods in this survey (Collis&Hussey, 2009). The questionnaire is a good solution in this research. The survey of Exeter Central Library satisfaction is focused on the perception of patrons, so the 11 questionnaire can reflect the views of patrons and what we need to care is just the sample we choose.
A sample should be unbiased and present the landscape of phenomena (ibid). Furthermore, to make the questionnaire feasible and practical, I sent the questionnaires between in my friends first, and I found some meanings of sentences would be ambiguous, so I changed the words and improve the question to be clear and useful. 3. 2 Procedure of Primary Research Although there are a lot of methodologies in books, I can find so limited examples about the methods to survey the library satisfaction condition and most references on library satisfaction survey are unsuitable to apply in my survey.
In Literature Review 2. 6 Performance Satisfaction Survey, The SERVQUAL model is most suitable methodology for this research. This method is implemented in many satisfaction survey cases. However, it is too difficult to carry out for this dissertation. It has 22 measure indicators for its five dimensions (Shahin, 2010). The time and words in this dissertation is limited, so it is impossible to measure 22 aspects for Exeter Central Library. In addition, as mentioned in the Literature Review 2. 6, it does not distinguish the different background customers.
Other methodologies applied before in books are either out-of-date or the methods, need a professional team to complete the satisfaction survey and tend to examine the library itself by just comparing between the library and the standard they designed, like the IFLA standards. Thus, I decided to adapt the existing methods. This survey employs interview, observation and questionnaire as the main methods of research. After informing the aim of my survey to the Exeter Central Library librarian, and I get 12:001:00 and 4:005:00 in weekday and on Saturday, more people would come in the afternoon until 4:00, when the library close.
Thus, the 12 observation and questionnaire will proceed within these timings. I scheduled my timetable including the date of finishing my questionnaire and the date to send out my questionnaires. Furthermore, I used the observation method to roughly record the gender ratio and the age ratio in the following days. The results was the gender between male and female was so close, but in Exeter Central Library, the elderly people occupied the half part of users. I used the observation first, because I needed to make my sample of survey not to be biased and pursuit the resorts to be accuracy.
When I asked people do the questionnaire, I would explained the application of the questionnaire. I said I was a student in INTO university of Exeter and these questionnaire would be used to survey the satisfaction of Exeter Central Library in my dissertation. Most people accepted to fill the questionnaire and in order to make the sample reliable, I tried to send out the questionnaires to cover nearly every generation within the peak hours of two days. 3. 3 Information Processing The questions in my questionnaire can be divided into three main question parts, and they are E-book, Technology and Customer Service.
For example, in Question 4, the question is are you satisfied with the speed of assessing online in Exeter Central Library and Question 7 is are you satisfied with the self-service book circulation system in Exeter Central Library. These two questions are inspected to show the Technology part satisfaction. Another example is are you satisfied with the staffs professional knowledge in Exeter Central Library, which survey the Customer Service part in this library.
In addition, I just have one open question in the questionnaire, because I believe that people tend to do a simple questionnaire more carefully and I can receive more completed questionnaire. when the questionnaires was finished, I 13 collected 36 completed questionnaire, including 4 invalid ones. In order to make each demographics part had enough questionnaires to make the results near to the facts. In advance, I set 8 questionnaires for the survey in each age period, which are 15-18 age, 19-34 age, 35-59 age, and over 60 age. According to the age in the questionnaire, the information is allocated by the ages in four columns.
Each column has 8 finished questionnaires. The 4 in 36 is invalid is because the answers in these 4 questionnaires are nearly same in all questions. Thus, the results will be dealt with by information form 32 valid questionnaire. In additional, the two dates submitting the questionnaires are peak time and one day is in weekday, while the other is Saturday, so it must include people who come to Exeter Central Library regularly. Owing to no suitable and specific method to measure my survey, I design a criteria to evaluate the satisfaction of public libraries.
Firstly, following the age, I put the information together in four columns, which are 15-18, 19-34, 35-59, and over 60. I choose these four age stages, because 15-19 are mostly students, 19”35 can represent the young generation, 19-35 shows the middle-age peoples views and over 60 indicates the elderlys opinions. The age information can be collect by Question 1. Thus, apart from 4 invalid questionnaire information, each column has information containing 8 questionnaire pages. In my questionnaire, there are two questions are for e-books satisfaction, technology satisfaction and customer service satisfaction.
The aim of each two questions is to show one aspect of these three fields in public libraries. In addition, Question 9, 10, 11 can indicate a whole general image people think to Exeter Central Library. By analyzing this information separately, we can see a clear fact of Exeter Central Library satisfaction situation. However, There are still a lot of problems existing the research, the result may be not accurate and show the whole opinions in Exeter. On the whole, I reckon that the primary research I have done is successful. I am still 14 confident with the results I have surveyed to be close the truth.
Chapter 4 Results The satisfaction survey results in three main parts of Exeter Central Library are shown below. They are e-books, technology and customer service part and the results will also be shown separately first and finally give a whole perspective on Exeter Central Library. 4. 1 Results of the E-book Satisfaction Assessment According to Literature Review 2. 3. 1, the importance of e-books in current years and the accessing convenience and content of e-books are two main assessment aspects. Question 5 and Question 6 in the questionnaire are about the e-books satisfaction.
Question 5 says Are you satisfied with the convenience of accessing e-resources or e-books in Exeter central library? are aim to survey convenience satisfaction of e-books, While Question 6 Are you satisfied with e-resources or e-books content in Exeter central library? are applied to survey content satisfaction of e-books. Each question above represents 50% mark in the total 100 marks on e-book satisfaction assessment. The assessment criteria is below: 20-30=total dissatisfaction, 35-49=dissatisfaction, 50-64=neutral, 20-30 65-79=satisfied, 80-94= very satisfied
4. 2 E-book Satisfaction Assessment 1. Accessing Convenience of E-books in Exeter Central Library 15 (totally dissatisfied= 30 marks, dissatisfied= 45 marks, neutral= 60 marks, satisfied= 75 marks, very satisfied= 90 marks) Results of feedback on Accessing Convenience of E-books in Exeter Central Library Groupsatisfaction total dissatisfied 15-18 age 19-34 age 35-59 age Over 60 0 0 0 0 3 2 0 0 5 6 5 2 0 0 3 6 dissatisfied neutral satisfied very satisfied 0 0 0 0 The satisfaction marks on accessing convenience satisfaction of e-books are shown below:
The results have a big different between each age group in the accessing convenience satisfaction of e-books. In 15-18 age group, 3 in 8 people choose dissatisfied, occupying 37. 5% and other 5 people choose neutral, which accounts for 62. 5%. In the 19-35 age group, 6 people choose the neutral and 2 people choose the dissatisfied in this survey. In 35-59 age group, we get 3 16 people who are satisfied with the speed of accessing e-books and other 5 choose neutral, which is exactly reserve to the 15-19 age group people.
Among over 60 people, they have a highest satisfied mark, where 6 people choose satisfied and only 2 people choose neutral. 2. Content of E-books in Exeter Central Library (totally dissatisfied= 30 marks, dissatisfied= 45 marks, neutral= 60 marks, satisfied= 75 marks, very satisfied= 90 marks) Results of Feedback on Content of E-books in Exeter Central Library Groupsatisfaction total dissatisfied 15-18 age 19-34 age 35-59 age Over 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 1 2 6 7 7 6 dissatisfied neutral satisfied very satisfied 0 0 0 0 The satisfaction marks on content of e-books are shown below: 17.
In the content satisfaction of e-books, 15-18 group people are almost satisfied with the content in e-books. 6 people in this age group choose satisfied and just two choose neutral, while in over 60 age group, 7 in 8 people choose neutral and 1 people choose satisfied. In the 19-34 and 35-59 age group, people have the same views, which 7 people choose satisfied and 1 choose neutral. Thus, 19-34 and 34-59 age group have highest marks, which both are 73. 1. 3.
General Assessment of E-books in Exeter Central Library Therefor, the overall assessment of e-books are that 15-18 age group people think the e-book service in Exeter Central Library is neutral, which the satisfaction mark is 62. 9. 19-34, 35-59 and over 60 age group people are satisfied with the e-book service, which individually get 64. 7, 72. 2 and 76. 4 satisfaction marks, although 19-34 age group people is just satisfied with the service.
18 4. 3 Results of the Technology Satisfaction Assessment The importance of Technology in public libraries is gradually increasing nowadays and from the Literature Review 2. 3. 2, we can see online system and self-service books circulation system are common and basic technology in todays public libraries.
Most UK public libraries have these two basic services in technology, so using these two indicators to measure the technology of Exeter Central Library will be more meaningful. Furthermore, for people, speed of surfing online is the issue of most concern. Thus, the survey on these two aspects can almost represent the technology satisfaction assessment. The results of Question 4 and Question 7 in the questionnaire indicate the technology satisfaction assessment data. In Question 4 Are you satisfied with the speed of accessing online in Exeter central library?
, it aims to get the information on speed of getting online. Question 7 is Are you satisfied with the self-service book circulation system in Exeter central library? . This question show another critical and indispensable in modern public libraries. In this technology assessment part, we also use the 100 marks for these two questions, and each question worth 50% in total marks. The assessment criteria are shown below: 20-34=total dissatisfaction, 35-49=dissatisfaction, 50-64=neutral, 65-79=satisfied, 80-94= very satisfied 1.
The Speed of Accessing Online in Exeter Central Library (totally dissatisfied= 30 marks, dissatisfied= 45 marks, neutral= 60 marks, satisfied= 75 marks, very satisfied= 90 marks) Results of Feedback on Speed of Accessing Online in Exeter Central Library Groupsatisfaction total dissatisfied 19 neutral satisfied very dissatisfied 15-18 age 19-34 age 35-59 age Over 60 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 5 2 2 0 2 5 6 8 satisfied 0 0 0 0 The satisfaction marks on speed of accessing online are shown below: According to the information collected from the questionnaires, the samples also are divided into four age groups.
In Question 4, among 15-18 age group, most people think the speed of accessing online is neutral, so 6 people in this group choose neutral in this question. In addition, 1 person thinks it is too slow, while another two think it is satisfied. In both19-34 and 35-50 age groups, most of people think the online speed is good and satisfactory. In 19-34, two people choose neutral, and only 1 person chooses dissatisfied. In 35-50, just 2 people choose neutral, and others all choose satisfied. In the group of over 60, all people choose satisfied, which is highest marks again. 20 2.
Self-service Book Circulation System in Exeter Central Library (totally dissatisfied= 30 marks, dissatisfied= 45 marks, neutral= 60 marks, satisfied= 75 marks, very satisfied= 90 marks) Results of Feedback on Self-service Book Circulation System in Exeter Central Library Groupsatisfaction total dissatisfied 15-18 age 19-34 age 35-59 age Over 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 6 0 0 0 0 dissatisfied neutral satisfied very satisfied The satisfaction marks on self-service book circulation system are shown below: In the Question 7 about self-service book circulation system, the feedback are 21 good.
Almost all these four groups people are satisfied with the system, only 2 people in over 60 are dissatisfied this process. Thus, 15-19, 19-31, and 35-59 age groups all have 75 satisfaction marks. However, owing to 2 two people in over 60 group choose dissatisfied, the mark of this group is only 67. 5. 3. General Assessment of Technology in Exeter Central Library To summarize, following the satisfaction assessment criteria above, we can see the four age group people are satisfied with the current technology in Exeter Central Library. Their satisfaction condition are 69. 5 marks in 15-18 age group, 71.
3 marks in 19-34 age group, 73. 2 marks in 35-59 group and 71. 3 marks in over 60 group 4. 4 Results of the Customer Service Satisfaction Assessment As mentioned in Literature Review 2. 3. 3, good customer service can bring a good image for public libraries. The attitude and knowledge of librarian are two most important part in public libraries. Using two relevant questions to assess 22 customer service of Exeter Central Library can basically indicate the performance of its customer service. In the assessment of customer service in Exeter Central Library, I use Question 8 and Question 9 to probe the information I need.
In Question 8 Are you satisfied with the staffs manner in the Exeter Central Library? , my aim is to learn the customer attitude of librarian in Exeter Central Library. In addition, Question 9 Are you satisfied with the staffs professional knowledge in Exeter Central Library? is to get the information on the professional knowledge of librarian in Exeter Central Library. The condition of customer service in Exeter Central Library is encouraging. After the questionnaire survey, I find most people tend to choose satisfied and only 4 people choose neutral in Question 8.
Similarly, the feedback of Question 9 is also good, and only 1 people in this survey choose dissatisfaction. Like the above two, each question in this section occupied 50% mark either. The assessment criteria are shown below: 20-34=total dissatisfaction, 35-49=dissatisfaction, 50-64=neutral, 65-79=satisfied, 80-94= very satisfied 1. Attitude of Librarian in Exeter Central Library (totally dissatisfied= 30 marks, dissatisfied= 45 marks, neutral= 60 marks, satisfied= 75 marks, very satisfied= 90 marks).
Results of Feedback on Attitude of Librarian in Exeter Central Library Groupsatisfaction total dissatisfied 15-18 age 19-34 age 35-59 age Over 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 6 dissatisfied neutral satisfied very satisfied 0 0 0 0 23 The satisfaction marks on attitude of librarian are shown below: 2. Professional Knowledge of Librarian in Exeter Central Library (totally dissatisfied= 30 marks, dissatisfied= 45 marks, neutral= 60 marks, satisfied= 75 marks, very satisfied= 90 marks).
Results of Feedback on Professional Knowledge of Librarian in Exeter Central Library Groupsatisfaction total dissatisfied 15-18 age 19-34 age 35-59 age Over 60 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 8 8 8 6 dissatisfied neutral satisfied very satisfied 0 0 0 0 24 The satisfaction marks on professional knowledge of librarian are shown below: 3. General Assessment of Customer Service in Exeter Central Library By and large, the customer service satisfaction of Exeter Central Library is excellent and each age groups people support that according to the questionnaire results. They all have over 73 satisfaction marks, and 19-35 group has highest.