The objective of the canteens is: to improve the school meals so that they are fresher, flavorsome and balanced, promote healthy food to the students and give their satisfaction. But in our observation it seems that more students are not patronizing the canteen because of the not enough food to serve to the students, space to name a few.
Based on DepEd Order No.08 series of 2007 or the Revised Implementing Guidelines on the Operation and Management of School Canteens in Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, only nutrient-rich foods and fortified food products labeled rich in protein, energy, vitamins and minerals shall be sold in school canteens and that the sale of carbonated drinks, sugar-based synthetic or artificially flavored juices, junk foods and any food product that may be detrimental to the childs health is prohibited.
However, when classes for school year 2013-2014 started last June 3, there were several school canteens”especially in the urban areas”that continue to sell junk foods such as chips and candies as well carbonated and sugar-based drinks such as soft drinks. With this, the DepEd reiterated that school canteen managers should adhere to the policy of the Department and stick to selling only nutritious food especially inside the school premises.
The researchers of this study wanted to determine the different factors or reasons why students patronizing or not the STMTCC Canteen. Theoretical Framework
Four psychological theories were identified by Anderson that can be used to explain the impact of expectancy or satisfaction: Assimilation, Contrast, Generalized Negativity, and Assimilation-Contrast. Assimilation- the process whereby individuals or groups of differing ethnic heritage are absorbed into the dominant culture of a society. The process of assimilating involves taking on the traits of the dominant culture to such a degree that
the assimilating group becomes socially indistinguishable from other members of the society. Contrast-to set in opposition in order to show or emphasize differences. Generalized Negativity-
Assimilation-Contrast- a theory of judgement and attitude change according to which a judges initial judgement or attitude acts as an anchor, so that items of information or persuasive communications that are not very discrepant from the anchor and that therefore fall within the persons latitude of acceptance are assimilated, the persons judgement or attitude changing in the direction of the communication, whereas items of information or persuasive communications that are highly discrepant produce either minimal change if they fall within the persons latitude of neutrality or produce contrast effects if they fall within the latitude of rejection, the persons judgement or attitude changing in the opposite direction. Conceptual Framework
The study focused on the factors on students patronizing the St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site canteen. This study will make use of the variables such as services, food, facilities and amenities of the canteen. In line with this, the researcher formulated the conceptual framework to give the much need direction.
Figure 1. Research Paradigm
In the research paradigm it shows the independent and dependent variables of the study as well as the process. The independent variables are facilities/amenities, service and food. The analysis gathered from the independent variable resulted to the dependent variable which is Patronizing of St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site Canteen. Further, to detail the relationship among the variables to be established in the study, the graphical research paradigm is presented below.
Figure 2. Research Paradigm
Statement of the problem
This study will focused on the factors on patronizing of St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site Canteen. Particularly, this study seek to answer the following questions 1. What is the demographic profile of respondents in terms of: 1.1 age,
1.3 year level,
1.4 course, and
1.5 status in school?
2. What is the assessment of the respondents on the factors that affect patronizing of STMTCC-LF Canteen when grouped according to their profile in terms of: 2.1 facilities/ amenities
3. Is there a significant difference among the assessment of the respondents in the factors of patronizing of STMTCC-LF Canteen when grouped according to their profile? 4. What strategies shall be employed to enhance students attitude in patronizing the school canteen of STMTCC La Fiesta Site.
Significance of the study
The results and finding of this study is beneficial and can be used by the administrator, students and future researcher. The administrator, since it will provide the information on how to improve canteen services as well as to provide food which are preferred by the students.
To the students, to know the strength and weakness of the school, to inform the administration the needs to be improve result to patronizing the STMTCC Canteen.
Result of the study could also be a basis for further research in the same topic, as such will be a source of additional information on the food preference of the student.
Hypothesis of the study
There is no significant difference on patronizing of STMTCC-LF Canteen in terms of facilities, foods and services when the respondents are classified according to their age, gender, year level and course.
Scope and Limitations of the study
The extent of this study includes an inquiry concerning The Patronizing of St. Therese MTC Colleges La Fiesta Site Canteen, which will be defined by facilities/amenities, services and food. This study will be also limited only to students and faculty in St. Therese MTC Colleges La Fiesta Site, and not include outside the premises. More often this study will make use of descriptive research particularly survey method. The period for undertaking this study will be limited to September 2013 to March 2014. Also study will consider financial constraints in the conduct of the study which may affect the conduct of the study.
Definition of Terms
The following terms are being defined operationally as used in the study.
Service in this study it refers to the provision of assistance to customers or clients. Facilities in this study it refers to the installation, contrivance, or other things which facilitates something a place for doing something. Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins or minerals. Amenities are any feature that provides comfort, convenience, or pleasure. The quality of being pleasing or agreeable in situation, prospect, disposition, etc.;
St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site Canteen has a special role in providing the needs of student, faculty and staff. It is located Arthuro A. Sebastian (AAS) building the new site of the school campus. The canteen is: to improve the school meals so that they are fresher, flavorsome and balanced, promote healthy food to the students and give their satisfaction. But in our observation it seems that more students are not patronizing the canteen because of the not enough food to serve to the students, space to name a few. Furthermore the canteen have a limited percentage of students including the faculty who eaten their foods in the canteen. They prefer to eat outside the school. The canteen is also place where the student can study and energized their self.
Apparently, the canteen is not patronized by the students and the faculty of St. Therese MTC Colleges. The services provided by the canteen to each costumer are far from their expectation. Expectations and Customer Satisfaction
Expectations are beliefs (likelihood or probability) that a product/service (containing certain attributes, features or characteristics) will produce certain outcomes (benefits-values) given certain anticipated levels of performance based on previous affective, cognitive, and behavioral experiences. Related literature
This chapter laid down the different review of pertinent literature that has been undertaken considered valuable in understanding the research problem clearly. The review allowed the researchers to examine the works and researchers of others in similar research concern, with more attention to the results of previous studies.
Related Foreign studies
A study conducted by Claire Drummond and Lorraine Sheppard published May 19, 2011 entitled Health Education Research Advance Access School canteen guidelines .Canteen guidelines developed in most Australian states and territories apply to all situations where food and beverages are supplied in the school environment .
The aims of the guidelines are to provide a framework to support the implementation of sale of healthy food in school canteens. Currently, canteen guidelines refer only to the school canteens in the state or territory in which they were developed; however, National canteen guidelines have been written which harmonize existing State and Territory school canteen guidelines. Canteen guidelines for schools in South Australia were not applicable at the time of this research; however, the position paper explaining the guidelines was available to schools. A few school canteen managers who had seen the position paper were concerned that the guidelines would prevent the sale of the canteens profitable foods, such as pies and hot dogs.
These comments concur with research indicating a reliance on profits from canteens, vending machines and junk food is fundraising makes it difficult for schools, particularly secondary schools, to model healthy eating. Currently, many Australian government schools are slowly adopting the state guidelines that support healthy food implementation in school canteens although there is limited evidence showing how effective these food policies are. The recent removal of the healthy food policy in New Zealand schools due to concerns regarding issues such as canteen staffing resources and pressure of maintaining a profit indicates that schools are not receiving the support required from the surrounding system to assist with long-term implementation of a healthy menu.
In International School of Tanganyika. A small canteen is located behind the school library, and it will attempt to deliver a selection of healthy snacks and drinks, the canteen, which is run by JDees Enterprises, also provides some limited lunch options. These include grilled sandwiches, wraps and pizzas. Menus are available in the canteen. The importance of healthy eating habits and a balanced diet are emphasized in the school. Two options exist for lunch; students can either bring a healthy lunch from home or purchase what is on offer from the canteen.
A study conducted by Mead, Antonia S. (2009) entitled Gender Differences in Food Selections of Students at Historically Black Colleges and University (HRCU). The lack of proper nutrition and physical activity can lead to increased weight gain and development of chronic disease. Studies show a nationwide trend in the number of college aged individuals being classified as overweight according to BMI calculations. College is a time of transitions from adolescence to adulthood where habits that began in childhood grow or cease to exist and new habits are formed.
One habit tied to weight and development of chronic diseases is proper nutrition. The purpose of this research is to explore the eating patterns of college students attending a small, private historically black college and university (HBCU). A non-invasive food selection and preference assessment instrument was administered to 141 students. Chi- square analysis was done to compare the differences between gender or beverage choices, and daily food selection, and meal consumption. Significant differences were found between genders regarding milk consumption, water intake, fried potato consumption and number of meals per day. Recommendation include targeted health communication to promote healthier food choices on campus further research is needed to explore why student select their diet choices.
A study conducted by Nha Trang University, Vietnam (2010) entitled Food category and Meal Preferences among Vietnamese Teenagers. This purpose of this paper is to examine the applicability of preference-based segmentation for a broad array of meals and the categories in the content of teenagers in Vietnam. A convenience sample of 413 Vietnamese teenagers in secondary and high schools provided an evaluation on the preferences of 38 items of food categories of 36 common meals was collected based on structured questioners and then used s inputs for analysis.
A five-cluster solution for the food category segmentation is defined; fish haters, egg haters, shellfish haters, vegetable haters and food likers. Four distinct preferences-based meals segments are also identified namely likes of all meals and haters of pork meals. The segments are profiled by means of food consumption, social and family related attitudes, interest and lifestyle and socio-demographic variables. The findings indicate that there are distinct and interesting differences between there segments. Thumbnail sketches of the teenager segments cable food producers and meal supplies to make better and more informed decisions in terms of effectively targeting different market segments.
A study was conducted by Mardell and Kimberly Shenuk, (2003) entitled Food Safety Knowledge of Residents in the Central Illinois Country the following food safety issues were commonly missed among the participants: safe beef preparation temperature, proper cleaning of a cutting board, placement of meat in the refrigerator and the shelf of the eggs.
The respondent was 151 surveys included 19 food safety knowledge questions and conducted in Central Illinois Country. They recommend continues efforts should made to provide programs for individuals all ages residences education level which focus on the seriousness of food borne illness and the importance proper food handling random sample was used. The study was related to our study because it focuses on the importance of the knowledge on food safety on the Central Illinois Country which was part on the America. It connotes that the programs over the food safety can help minimize food borne illnesses a specific country. It also proves that temperature varies like the levels of education.
Related Local Studies
A study conducted by Virginia Barniza, Russel Soposo, Raffy Bavidia, Elvis Canja, Michelle Miangar, Jill Ann Canto, Jennifer Jamore (2004) entitled Preferred Food to be Available at the St. Therese MTC-Colleges Canteen. This study was conducted to find out the preferred foods to be available at the St. Therese MTC Canteen specifically, when taken as a whole group and when grouped according to year and gender. Likewise, it also sought to ascertain the factors that affected food references of the students. Using random sampling method, 319 respondents were identified from among the 1,565 students enrolled at the St. Therese MTC-Colleges for the SY 2004-2005.
The data gathering instrument used was the questionnaire which was distributed to the respondents for them to answer. Upon statistical analysis of survey results, it was found out that when taken as a group, the students preferred bihon, spaghetti and sandwiches to be available to snack food in the canteen. Furthermore, the preferences include cleanliness, availability and taste. It was also ascertain that when grouped according to year level and gender, snack food choices varied. However, chicken viands as the top lunch food references, was consistent among the group of the respondents. Recommendation centered on the replication of the study with the socio- economic status as additional variable to be included in the study. Recommendations were also given as to testing the significance of the differences in food references between year levels and genders.
Likewise, it was also recommended that canteen management should take into consideration the research results in preparing preferred foods to be available at the canteen. A study was conducted by Jeeramay Samcio and Ma. Carol Joy Martin entitled Evaluation of Food Service of the St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site Canteen. This study was conducted to evaluate the food services in St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site in terms of facilities, food and personal management. When taken as a whole group the students found out that the food service in the canteen is to be good. Assessment of canteen facilities was very good while food service and personnel management where only good. Therefore it concludes that the St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site canteen is only good and there is a need for improvement to be initiated.
A study conducted by Barra (2003) entitled Canteen Purchasing Practices of the year 1-6 Primary School Children and Association with SES and Weight Status. The objective of the study was to identify sources of food eaten during the school day, the types of food preferred and frequency purchases from the canteen in relation with the SES and weight status of primary school-aged children. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the Los Ba±os, Laguna. Primary schools were randomly selected from the list of government schools and 5,206 students in year 1-6 from the majority of children in the study bring their recess snack and lunch from home.
However, the majority of children do use the school canteen and less healthy foods and high sugar drink are commonly purchased. This study confirms the relevance of the school canteen as a means of affecting childrens eating habits. Improvement in the food sold through school provides an important contribution to model supportive environments for healthy food choices. Strategies should also be directed towards affecting the content of lunchboxes and home environment. A study was conducted by Sicad et.al (2003) focuses on The Awareness Level of Food Safety and Sanitation Practices in the Oton Public Market. The restaurants in Oton public market were highly aware on food safety and sanitation practices in terms of food sources food preparation and food storage.
The respondent were 19 restaurant owner and was conducted in Oton public market. They recommended that the supervision of food service establishment shall be given to the management or individual who has the knowledge and obligation of insuring that all personnel follow the application of food safety and sanitation descriptive statistics and percentage. A study conducted by Bunda, Ma. Gina Cruz Canteen Management of Selected Schools in Pasig Diocesan School System (PADSS): An Assessment.
University of Regina Carmeli, City of Malolos, March 2011 Management of a school canteen which offers services to the students and the rest of the members of the academic community to satisfy their continuous need for food should be given special consideration. The school canteen services are an integral part of the student services that are provided by the school. As such, it is therefore important that the canteen services be efficiently and effectively managed. Specifically, this study presents an assessment of the effectiveness of school canteen management in selected schools in PADSS for school year 2009 ¢â‚¬ 2010.
The school administrative, faculty members, non ¢â‚¬ teaching personnel and students were asked to answer the locally constructed questionnaire prepared by the researcher. School operated and concessionaire and combination of school operated and concessionaire are the systems of canteen management implemented among PADSS schools which are all found to be effective in terms of quality of service, profitability, price and affordability, nutritive value of food and mode of servicing rendered to the clientele thus resulting in the greater satisfaction of the customer.
On the other hand issues and problems were encountered by the management in the operations of the school canteen such as personality of the staff, limited space and facilities and limited number of staff. In the light of the learning experiences gained from the operation of canteen among selected PADSS schools using the three systems (concessionaire, school operated and combination of both) thus evolved an action plan in order to solve the problems encountered in the management of the school canteen. Synthesis
Related Foreign studies
Health Education Research Advance Access School canteen guidelines Gender Differences in Food Selections of Students at Historically Black Colleges and University (HRCU). Food category and Meal Preferences among Vietnamese Teenagers. Food Safety Knowledge of Residents in the Central Illinois Country In this guidelines implement the healthy foods in school canteens, promotes healthy eating habits, healthy foods choices on campus. And in the study of Food category and Meal Preferences among Vietnamese Teenagers. By Nha Trang University, Vietnam results in food segment categories; fish, egg, shellfish and vegetables haters but food likers. The overall studies is implementing the healthy foods and food safety among school canteens. Related Local Studies
Preferred Food to be Available at the St. Therese MTC-Colleges Canteen Evaluation of Food Service of the St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site Canteen. Canteen Purchasing Practices of the year 1-6 Primary School Children and Association with SES and Weight Status. The Awareness Level of Food Safety and Sanitation Practices in the Oton Public Market. The St. Therese MTC Colleges La Fiesta Site Canteen
In this studies stated that the importance of cleanliness of the facilities of the canteens and also implementing healthy foods served. And the study result that a student preferred foods bihon, spaghetti and sandwiches However, chicken viands as the top lunch food references Chapter 3
This study will be conducted in order to determine the different factors or reasons why students patronize or not the STMTCC La Fiesta Site Canteen. With this objective this study will make use of descriptive research as its research design specifically the survey method. According to James P. Key, of Oklahoma State University descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the current status of the phenomena to describe what exists with respect to variables or conditions in a situation. The methods involved range from the survey which describes the status quo, the correlation study which investigates the relationship between variables, to developmental studies which seek to determine changes over time. (http://okstate.edu/ag/agedcm4h/academic/aged5980a/5980/newpage110.htm)
Population and Respondents of the study
The population of the study will be the students of St. Therese MTC-Colleges La Fiesta Site. Since this study determined the different factors or reasons why student patronize or not the STMTCC La Fiesta Site Canteen, the respondents were purposely selected whereby, participants were purposely selected to answer the questions. The sample size will be 50 and will be computed using the Slovenes formula at 5 percent margin of error. Further, the respondents will be identified using the random sampling. This sampling method gave the researcher information from the respondents to provide development in our canteen.
Research Instruments and Validation
The main instruments to be used in gathering the primary data will be the research made survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire will be divided into two (2) parts. The first part is for the demographic profile of the respondents, and the second part is determining the different factors or reasons why students patronize or not the STMTCC La Fiesta Site Canteen in terms of food, services and facilities/amenities.
The validation of the survey questionnaires will be done in two parts. The first part will be the consultation with the experts, while the second part will be for the trial run on five (5) members of the population who are not part of the respondents of the study.
In analyzing and interpreting the retrieved responses, the researchers set the assigned weight for each option and the Likert scale that determines the aggregate responses as follows:
Weight Scale Verbal Interpretation
5 4.21 5.00 Excellent
4 3.41 4.20 Very Good
3 2.61 3.40 Good
2 1.81 2.60 Fair
1 1.00 1.80 Poor
Data Gathering Procedures
In gathering the data, the researcher will first ask permission from the president of the school, second to the deans office to conduct the study. After the permission is obtained, the researchers will then conduct the survey questionnaires and retrieve it personally. The gathered questionnaires will then be tabulated, analyzed and interpreted.
Statistical Treatment of Data
The different data gathered will be treated using the various statistical treatments listed below.
1. Frequency Count. This statistical will be used to consolidate all the responses of the respondents and express it to frequency form for systematic treatment of data.
2. Percentage. This statistics will be utilized to determine the relationship of the frequency of responses in relation to the whole.
3. Ranking. This will be used to arrange data in a series in ascending or descending order of importance. In this study, the item with the highest frequency or weighted mean got the highest rank and the lowest also got the lowest rank.
4. Weighted Mean. This method will be employed to express the different data into a single data that described the perceptions of the respondents regarding the different variables of the study.
5. T-test. This statistical tool will be used determine if there was significant difference between the responses of the respondents.
6. Pearson r. This will be employed to determine or measure the degree of relationship between the profile of the respondents and their responses.