Suicide Bombing Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 08:06:56
2886 words
11 pages
printer Print
essay essay

Category: Terrorism

Type of paper: Essay

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

Hey! We can write a custom essay for you.

All possible types of assignments. Written by academics

Suicide terrorism is not mainly the product of Islamic fundamentalism or any other evil ideology independent of circumstance. The world leader in suicide terrorism is the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka theyre a Marxist group, a secular group, a Hindu group. The Tamil Tigers have committed more suicide terrorist attacks than Hamas or Islamic Jihad. Instead, what more than 95 percent of all suicide terrorist attacks since 1980 have in common are not religion, but a specific secular goal: to compel modern democracies to withdraw military forces from the territory the terrorists view as their homeland.

From Lebanon to Chechnya to Kashmir to Sri Lanka to the West Bank, every suicide terrorist campaign since 1980 has had as its main objective to compel a democratic state to withdraw combat forces from territory that the terrorists prize. Mostly are organizational motivated and fanaticism and religiously motivation are two different angles of same picture. Religious rhetoric may help persuade attackers that their cause is either necessary or noble, and that glorifies or renames suicide as martyrdom, but it does not explain why suicide attackers choose that particular tactic.

These can be explained by considering some other factors like individual, organizational, environmental and trauma-based motivations. Suicide Bombing is an act of violence that kills the attacker himself in addition to bystanders, but that also represents a tactic of terrorist organizations. The bomber perceives in his mind that by dehumanizing others he will be getting extra rewards like the extremists and fanatics of religious segments think; by giving their life they would be free to enter the heaven.

Some other reasons which psychologically influence the mind of a terrorists are personal motivation, organizational, environmental, trauma- based motivations. Organizations provide the means, methods and group self-motivated fundamental suicide terrorism operations and often the ideology as well. They arise from a complex mix of social and political circumstances, psychological and religious context and interplay between the actions, sentiments and rhetoric of terror groups, their constituency and the perceived oppressor/enemy.

When looking at the motivations on the organizational level we must acknowledge that terror-sponsoring organizations are largely political in their motivations and resort to terrorism when other political solutions have failed and to suicide terrorism when a specific set of circumstances exist. When one considers the suicide terror groups uses of religion to motivate individuals to sign up to die, it makes strategic sense.

Any believer of any faith who is persuaded of the will act in extraordinary ways. Its history depicts that in south India, in the late 11th century, the local Kulasekhara kingdom had special suicidal squads to fight against their mighty neighbors, the Cholas. These Nair warriors were specially trained in so called Kalaris. These Nair race later transformed as the rulers of the region, and in war festivlas like Mamankam, they were still in use aganist the Zamorin rulers of Calicut.

In the late 17th century, Qing official Yu Yonghe recorded that injured Dutch soldiers fighting against Koxingas forces for control of Taiwan in 1661 would use gunpowder to blow up both themselves and their opponents rather than be taken prisoner. However, the Chinese observer may have confused such suicidal tactics with the standard Dutch military practice of undermining and blowing up positions recently overrun by the enemy which almost cost Koxinga his life during the siege. During the Belgian Revolution, Dutch Lieutenant Jan van Speijk detonated his own ship in the harbour of Antwerp to prevent its capture by the Belgians.

Another example was the Prussian soldier Karl Klinke on 18 April 1864 at the Battle of Dybbol, who died blowing a hole in a Danish fortification. In the 18th century John Paul Jones wrote about Ottoman sailors setting their own ships on fire and ramming the ships of their enemies, although they knew this meant certain death for them. Modern suicide bombing as a political tool can be traced back to the assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1881. Alexander fell victim to a Nihilist plot.

While driving on one of the central streets ofSaint Petersburg, near the Winter Palace, he was mortally wounded by the explosion of hand-made grenades and died a few hours afterwards. The Tsar was killed by a member of Narodnaya Volya,Ignacy Hryniewiecki, who died while intentionally exploding the bomb during the attack. Rudolf Christoph Freiherr von Gersdorff intended to assassinate Adolf Hitler by suicide bomb in 1943, but was unable to complete the attack. During the Battle for Berlin the Luftwaffe flew Selbstopfereinsatz against Soviet bridges over the Oderriver.

These missions were flown by pilots of the Leonidas Squadron under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Heiner Lange. From 17 April until 20 April 1945, using any aircraft that were available, the Luftwaffe claimed that the squadron destroyed 17 bridges; however the military historian Antony Beevor when writing about the incident thinks that this was exaggerated and that only the railway bridge at Kustrin was definitely destroyed. He comments that thirty-five pilots and aircraft was a high price to pay for such a limited and temporary success.

The missions were called off when the Soviet ground forces reached the vicinity of the squadrons airbase at Juterbog. Following World War II, Viet Minh death volunteers fought against the French Colonial Forces by using a long stick-like explosive to destroy French tanks. It has suddenly taken off like a wildfire spreading from Lebanon to Palestine, Sri Lanka, Chechnya, Morocco, Indonesia, Turkey, Afghanistan, and Iraq and now sadly even originating in Europe and European bred bombers now even targeting Europe itself.

The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) carries out its first suicide bombing at the Nelliady army camp killing 40 security force (SF) personnel. May 21st 1911 Former Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and 18 persons are killed by a female suicide bomber in the town of Sriperumbudur, approximately 30 miles from Chennai, capital of the southern State of Tamil Nadu. This was the history of suicide bombing which shows that none of them were moved cause of Islam.

The terrorist assumes he is in a extraterrestrial battle, involving apocalyptic forces which will wipe out either his side or the other, hence challenging a war of defense; He should dehumanize and his enemies by seeing them as the enemies of God; In joining the group and taking on its values and teachings, he has learned the mind of God is authorized to act in the battle by the will of God; The battle in which he is fighting is for sacred values and he must go to extraordinary means to eradicate and spot out those he sees as evildoers even innocent civilians who he believes are standing in the way of and offending Gods will.

It may be noteworthy that suicide bombers mostly are rather young males between the ages of 18 and 27. This fact is momentous for a number of reasons. First, it is the age when testosterone soars. Studies significantly linked testosterone production to dominance orientation in males. When the desire to dominate is satisfied, high testosterone is not related to a rise in aggressiveness, however when such desire is frustrated it results in increased probability of aggressive response against oneself or others. The first motivational set is a trauma based and occurs within zones of active conflict.

It is often: nationalistic; viewed in terms of self and community defense; expressive regarding meting out justice to the perceived enemy occupier; and includes acts of revenge. The individuals motivated within this set have witnessed firsthand and over the television their neighbors, family members and loved ones killed by what they view as an occupying force. Many have grown up witnessing countless acts of violence and as a result have not developed normally and often suffer from posttraumatic stress and dissociative disorders.

Many have lost jobs, educational opportunities, been humiliated, and often struggle for basic daily needs and security. While the majority of traumatized individuals in conflict zones will not become suicide bombers even if invited to do so, an extremely small group will become vulnerable to terrorist ideologies that promote this tactic. Whereas suicide terrorism is planned and executed by individuals who are members of organizations, groups, or cells, these two levels are in turn influenced by broader environmental conditions that include the political, social, historical, cultural, economic, and religious context.

Clearly, some of these sub-elements of the broader environment are more relevant in some cases than in others. Robert Pape, a political science professor at the University of Chicago and a renowned expert on suicide terrorism, argues in his new book Dying To Win that although Islamic fundamentalism seems to be the obvious central cause for suicide terrorism, at least half of the suicide terrorist attacks during the period 1980-2003 were not associated with Muslim fundamentalists.

The belief for the strong link between Islamic fundamentalism and suicide terrorism, Pape says, has fueled the belief that to avoid future attacks like those of 11 September 2001, there is an urgent need for a radical transformation of Muslim societies. However, this presumed connection between suicide terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism is misleading and maybe encouraging domestic and foreign policies that are likely to worsen Americas situation. Between 1980 and the end of 2003 there were 315 suicide terrorist acts. The overall leader is the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, a secular group fighting to establish an independent state.

According to some accounts, the Tamil Tigers have carried out at least five times more suicide attacks than other similar organizations put together. Tamil Tigers are said to be behind a very notorious suicide terrorist attack , the assassination of former Indian Prime Minster Rajiv Gandhi by a female bomber during an election rally in 1991. Cultural or religious worldviews enable people to feel that they are part of something larger, more meaningful, and, ultimately, longer lasting than themselves. Suicide bombing offers not only an identity, but also a place in community history life is exchanged for identity.

Self-sacrificial behavior is present in many cultures, and is not exclusively linked with Islam. It is an assertion that you will survive as an identity even if you cannot survive in physical form. Individuals can attain symbolic immortality deciding to die for their country. But if offered other ways of achieving symbolic life, they may be encouraged to leave a legacy in a pro-social way, rather than through violence. Pro-social methods of extending identity beyond death include raising children, starting a company and the preservation of peaceful cultural or religious practices.

Apart from one demographic attribute that the majority of suicide bombers tend to be young males the evidence has failed to find a stable set of demographic, psychological, socioeconomic and religious variables that can be causally linked to suicide bombers personality or socioeconomic origins. With the exception of a few cases, their life stories show no apparent connection between violent militant activity and personality disorders. Typically, most suicide bombers are psychologically normal and are deeply integrated into social networks and emotionally attached to their national communities.

Randomly attached labels such as mad denote ones inability to fathom the deeper reasons but dont advance our understanding of the causes of the phenomenon of suicide bombing. Rather, they impede us from discovering its real nature, purpose and causes. The meaning and nature of suicide in a suicide bombing are strikingly different from ordinary suicide. Suicide bombing falls into the category of altruistic suicidal actions that involve valuing ones life as less worthy than that of the groups honor, religion, or some other collective interest. Religiously and nationalistically coded attitudes owards acceptance of death, stemming from long periods of collective suffering, humiliation and powerlessness enable political organizations to offer suicide bombings as an outlet for their peoples feelings of desperation, deprivation, hostility and injustice.

Suicide is a major sin in Islam The Quran does tell Muslims, Do not kill yourselves and warns that those who disobey will be cast into the fire. The Prophet Mohammed is reported to have said that a suicide cannot go to paradise. If people do good to you, do good to them; and if they mistreat you, still refrain from being unjust. Another story tells of Mohammed ordering his soldiers not to mistreat women and children, even during a battle. Both the Quran and hadiths offer examples of respect given to Christians and Jews both considered along with Muslims as people of the Book. But bin Laden and some other terrorists say the less militant parts of Muslim teachings simply dont apply to their war with the West. This belief can be traced to a few well-known figures of relatively recent Muslim history. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab was a contemporary of George Washington.

His supporters say he was a religious reformer who cleaned up a corrupted version of Islam practiced in his part of Arabia. Opponents call him a political opportunist who used religion as a weapon. In either case, he declared that Islam had been corrupted a generation or so after the death of Mohammed, and he condemned any theology, customs or practices developed after that. Islamic laws oppose the practice. This religious prohibition has had the intended effect. According to Franz Rosenthal a scholar of the subject suicide was of comparatively rare occurrence in traditional Muslim society.

The most extreme ways that people can invest in their world view is to sacrifice their own life for it. Physical risks help to secure their own immortality this is self sacrifice as self-defense. Harming innocent bystanders, even in times of war, was forbidden by the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). This includes women, children, noncombatant bystanders, and even trees and crops. Nothing is to be harmed unless the person or thing is actively engaged in an assault against Muslims. The predominant theme in the Quran is forgiveness and peace. Allah (God) is Merciful and Forgiving, and seeks that in His followers.

Indeed, most people who spend time on a personal level with ordinary Muslims have found them to be peaceful, honest, hard-working, civic-minded people. In the fight against terrorism of all forms, it is important to understand who or what is our enemy. We can only fight against this horror if we understand its causes and motivations. The entire Quran, taken as a complete text, gives a message of hope, faith, and peace to a faith community of one billion people. The overwhelming message is that peace is to be found through faith in God, and justice among fellow human beings.

At the time the Quran was revealed, there was no United Nations or Amnesty International to keep the peace or expose injustice. Inter-tribal violence and vengeance was commonplace. As a matter of survival, one must have been willing to defend against aggression from all sides. Nevertheless, the Quran repeatedly urges forgiveness and restraint, and warns believers not to transgress or become oppressors. If anyone slays a person- unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land it would be as if he slew all people.

And if anyone saves a life, it would be as if he saved the life of all people. Quran 5:32Invite all to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching. And argue with them in ways that are best and most gracious¦ And if you punish,let your punishment be proportional to the wrong that has been done to you. But if you show patience, that is indeed the best course. Be patient, for your patience is from God. And do not grieve over them, or distress yourself because of their plots. For God is with those who restrain themselves, and those who do good.

Quran 16:125-128 The recompense for an injury is an injury equal thereto (in degree) but if a person forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is due from God, for God loves not those who do wrong. But indeed, if any do help and defend themselves after a wrong done to them, against such there is no cause of blame. The blame is only against those who oppress men with wrongdoing and insolently transgress beyond bounds through the land, defying right and justice. For such there will be a penalty grievous (in the Hereafter).

But indeed, if any show patience and forgive, that would truly be an affair of great resolution. Quran 42:40-43. Goodness and evil are not equal. Repel evil with what is better. Then that person, with whom there was hatred, may become your intimate friend! And no one will be granted such goodness except those who exercise patience and self-restraint, none but people of the greatest good fortune. Quran 41:34-35 The key motivator for a violent actor who seeks to die like a martyr is a strong attachment to a community, usually a religious community.

There are dozens of reasons for killing, but violent martyrdom is first and foremost about belonging. Strong emotional ties and strong feelings of mutual obligation often hold religious societies together. They act out of personal despair, rage, hatred, belief in paradise or having been brainwashed. We also assume that their actions are completely irrational and destructive. What we need to look at, in order to correct these misconceptions, is the martyrs discourse and the rituals that surround religiously sanctioned suicide terror.


Warning! This essay is not original. Get 100% unique essay within 45 seconds!


We can write your paper just for 11.99$

i want to copy...

This essay has been submitted by a student and contain not unique content

People also read