The Impact of Media on Behavior Essay

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This chapter presents the background, problem statement, purpose, specific objectives, the scope and the significance of the study. This study intended to find out the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancy among the youth using a case study of orphanage homes found in Rubaga division Kampala District

1.1: Background to the problem.

Several past researchers have had interest in the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancy among the youth in different contexts. For instance the research by Wingson (2009) was about the effects of mass media on teenager. He notes in this research that mass media has become part of everyones daily life. He adds that the development of technology is rapid in the world, from telegraph, radio, to TV, computer, mobile phone. He further noted that media makes the lives of the people at ease, along with Information and Communication Technologies they produce to increase the standard of living for the people to spend time. He concludes that, teenagers can easier to get mass media in computer. They can through computers to know different types of mass media that they want to have.

Dr. Baumrind (1966) studied how parents responded to the needs of their children, parental responsiveness and how that determined a childs behavior. She also looked at how they demanded things from their children, in terms of their behavior. She used these two measures of parenting to form her seminal parenting styles theory, which would shape the voice of psychology and criminology well into the 1990s.

The research by Farinola, & Donnerstein, (2001) was on sexuality and mass media. The research shows that sexual talk and displays are increasingly frequent and explicit in this mediated world. The research adds that sexual content that ranged from flirting to sexual intercourse had increased from slightly more than half of television programs in 1997-1998 to more than two-thirds of the programs in the 1999-2000 seasons, while the research of Rahaman Onike (2007) was social and health implications of teenage pregnancies. The research notes that the incidence of teenage pregnancy has become a global issue as a result of its consequence on population health, growth and development.

Lastly Crystal, (1990) carried out research on the causes teenage pregnancies. His research shows that teenagers risky sexual behaviours are major factors which predispose them to unwanted pregnancies. He adds that non -perception of risks in their sexual behaviours and lack of adequate information about reproduction and sexual health issues are largely responsible for teenage pregnancies. The research concludes that sexual behaviours of the teenagers depend largely on societal constrictions and the level of cultural permissiveness which dictate the modes of sexual practices

While much research concerning teenage pregnancy deals with either causal factors or prevention strategies, more information is needed about issues relating to parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancies.

All these past researchers isolated the above relationship a gap the proposed study intends to fill. All in all, with the above theoretical and contextual gaps raised, a study of the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancies is not only timely but also long overdue.

In the context of this study, parenting style is seen as a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use bin their child rearing. There are many different theories and opinions on the best ways to rear, children, as well as differing levels of time and effort that parents are willing to invest (Wikipedea 2010). Many parents create their own styles from a combination of factors, and these may evolve overtime as the children develop their own personalities and move through life stages.

A parenting style is affected by both the parents and childrens temperaments, and is largely based on the influence ones parents and culture. However, for the purposes of this study, parenting style will be understood to refer to the way parents bring about their children. It will include the things that parents do to impart discipline and good behaviors in their children as accepted in the context of Uganda.

According to Wikipedea (2008), mass media denotes a section of the media specifically designed to reach a large audience. The term was coined in the 1920s with the advent of nation wide radio networks, mass circulation of newspapers and magazines. However for the purposes of this research mass media will be used to mean news papers, magazines, radio stations and television programs related to issues of teenagers.

In the context of this study, teenage pregnancy can be described as the pregnancy that occurs to the females between 13 19 years. This is more prevalent in Africa than other continents of the world. Akindele Oscar (1999) also defines teenage pregnancy as conception by children who are below the age of 21 resulting from either marital or pre-marital sex.

Peer pressure refers top the influence exerted by a peer group in encouraging a person to change his or her attitude, values or behavior in order to conform to group norms Akindele Oscar (1999)

1.2: Statement of the Problem.

According to Barnaba A (1998), youth peer pressure is one of the most frequently referred to forms of peer pressure. It is particularly common pressure because most young people spend large amounts of time in fixed groups such as schools and sub-groups within them regardless of their opinion of those groups Meier (2008). In addition to this, they may lack the maturity to handle pressure from friends. Also, young people are more willing to behave negatively towards those who are not members of their own peer groups and relief from stress.

They need to better understand their condition and choices for care. However, this is not the case for teenagers in most cases most vulnerable persons do not receive good parenting and in most cases they are more exposed to information without restriction. As a result most of the teenagers engage in more risky sexual behaviors they see in the magazines, in the news papers and on television. It is for this reason that this study sets out to investigate the relationship between parenting styles, mass media peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancies in Rubaga Kampala District 1.3:Purpose of the study

The purpose of the study will be to establish the relationship to investigate the relationship between parenting styles, mass media peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancies in Rubaga Kampala District.

1.4:Objectives of the study

1.To establish the relationship between parenting styles and teenage pregnancies 2.To establish the relationship between mass media and teenage pregnancies. 3.To establish the relationship between peer pressure and teenage pregnancies.

I.5:Research questions
1.How do parenting styles contribute to the risk of teenage pregnancies?
2.What is the contribution of mass media on the risk of teenage pregnancies? 3.How does peer pressure contribute to teenage pregnancies?

1.6:Scope of the study

The study will be conducted in five selected orphanage homes found in Rubaga division of Kampala. Rubaga Division has five orphanage homes namely Sanyu Babies home, Nalukolongo, Hope Orphanage Home, Wakhissa Ministries, Cobap Nakulabye Project. Rubaga Division is selected because of its location in the heart of Kampala district and being a division with many community based organizations. The content scope of the study will be based on the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancies.

1.7:Significance of the study

The findings of the study could be of value to Rubaga division residents because the research will help them identify strategies which can work for them as regards combating teenage pregnancies.

To future researchers, the results of the study may support future researchers in having a basis for comparison of parenting styles and teenage pregnancies.

Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) could find the study useful because it would enable them lobby policy makers and government to provide appropriate community services as regards the youth.

To the youth, the results of the study will help them on knowing the best strategies of avoiding teenage pregnancies.

Media houses may find it useful as it may help them in choosing the best programs for the youth.

1.8:Conceptual Frame work

Fig 1: A conceptual framework showing the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancies among the youth. The conceptual framework shows that parenting styles mass media influence and peer pressure have got an impact on the youth that in turn make the youth prone to pregnancies.



Teenage pregnancy has become a growing concern nowadays and hence it has become imperative to look into the various causes of teenage pregnancy in order to deal with this issue carefully. Teenage pregnancies are widely discouraged because the of health risks they raise for the young mothers and their babies. This problem is more prevalent in developed countries, particularly USA. As the name itself indicates, teenage pregnancy refers to pregnancy in young girls, mostly aged 13 to 17 years. Pregnancy at such a tender age is primarily due to lack of sex education. Lack of awareness about the causes and effects of teenage pregnancy is more often than not, a result of lack of proper communication between teenagers and their parents. Therefore, it is the duty of the parents to impart adequate sex education and education regarding reproductive health to their adolescent sons and daughters so that their children become aware of the various aspects related teenage sex and pregnancy.

Schools and society also need to emphasize the risk factors associated with unprotected sex as well as the outcomes of unplanned teenage pregnancy, not to mention the significance of moral and ethical values. Lack of sex education is the most important but not the only cause of teenage pregnancy. Following are some other teenage pregnancy causes that can not be ignored. Teenage pregnancies create a host of other problems like incomplete education, unemployment, poverty, social embarrassment and numerous other emotional traumas. Further, early motherhood also affects the psychological development of the child adversely. Besides, bodies of teenage girls are not as developed as those of adult women in terms of childbearing, therefore they are likely to face certain complications as well. Moreover, the chances of maternal death can not be ruled out. Therefore, analyzing the various causes of teenage pregnancy can help a great deal in addressing this issue effectively and eventually reducing the cases of teenage pregnancies.

2.1:Parenting styles and the risk of teenage Pregnancy among the youth Despite what teens may say, their parents do play a critical role in determining what influences them. In many ways, parental behavior and the nature of the parent/teen relationship influences a teens decision to smoke, take drugs, become sexually active, and use contraception. Parental behavior can also affect teenagers choices to join a gang or participate in criminal activity. As a parent, you play a vital role in helping your child avoid risky behaviors. Actively listening to what your teen has to say will pave the way for conversations about topics that concern you, but setting harsh, unbending rules may only drive your teen toward negative choices. If parents have a dominating parenting style and arent knowledgeable about their teens activities and interests, it is more likely that their teen will engage in risky behaviors.

On the other hand, teens who report feeling connected to their parents are the least likely to engage in risky behaviors. Obviously, the reason at the base of any pregnancy is sexual intercourse. But several researchers would like to know why the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy is so widespread. The easiest answer is making an analysis of the relationship between parenting styles and the sexual behaviors that cause teenage pregnancies among the youth. Parents employ several strategies to influence the sexual behavior of their adolescent children. Parenting styles, parental communication and expectation and role modeling have an impact on the likelihood of teenage pregnancy. The influence of parenting strategies on teenage pregnancy is similar for male and female youth because pregnancy comes as a result of sexual intercourse between the two.

Therefore teen pregnancy prevention programs should emphasize helping parents develop effective discipline coupled with warmth and support and high educational expectations. Research has shown that one of the causes of teenage pregnancy is the lack of a sense of personal responsibility for their own actions, lack of maturity, and most importantly a lack of knowledge regarding sexual intercourse and contraception. Related to this, teen pregnancy is often closely associated with poverty, limited education and employment opportunities. 52% of teenagers admit not understanding sex or birth control and this is a reflection of one of the most fundamental causes of teenage pregnancy, ignorance. Indeed, teens in North America, especially girls, are bombarded with mixed messages concerning intercourse.

Sex is seen as immediate gratification with no consequences, but preparing for sex makes a girl promiscuous. Sex is seen all over the television and in videos, but equal treatment for birth control methods is completely absent. Open discussions about intercourse are very rare. If an adolescent girl experiences low expectations for her future or lack of control over her life, she is more likely to get pregnant. Depression in general is another one of the causes of teenage pregnancy, leading girls to engage in risky sexual activity. Abuse of alcohol or drugs also leads to poor choices about sex and contraception, often ending up in pregnancy. Growing up in a family without an adequate amount of love or a father figure may also be one of the causes of teenage pregnancy; an adolescent girl will fall prey to the attentions of an older man in the hopes of receiving affection. Most girls are pressured by their boyfriends into having intercourse because they believe this will make their boyfriends love them more.

There is a relationship between teenage pregnancy, sexual behavior, and family type. Students from lone parent and/or teenage mother initiate families more commonly report sex, lack of contraception at first sex, and/or conceptions by age 15/16, and such associations can be explained by low parental strictness, difficult parent-child communication, and/or low parental input into sex education. Girls and boys from lone parent families or having mothers who are teenagers when they were born are more likely to report sex but not lack of contraception at first sex by age 15/16. Girls and boys with mothers having them as teenagers, and boys but not girls from lone parent families, are more likely to report being involved in conceptions by age 15/16. Teens say their parents influence their decisions about sexual activity more than any other source, according to a survey conducted by the National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy.

Also, when asked where they learned the most about preventing teen pregnancy, more teens said parents than friends or the media. Most studies show that the risk of teen pregnancy is reduced by open communication with parents, sharing of family values, and parental involvement in teens lives. Teenagers are less likely to start having sex when their mothers are deeply involved in their lives and successfully communicate their values on sex. Research has shown that stressing abstinence to teens is best, but also talking to them about contraception is not viewed as a mixed message by 70% of adults and by 80% of teens. Boys may be more influenced by fathers, siblings and peers on their decision to have intercourse. In a loving, supportive, and open way, parents need to communicate their feelings on premarital sex clearly to their teen in order to help their teen make important decisions regarding sex.

The absence of positive family interaction and parental support, such as emotional support, closeness, and communication, can lead to a wide variety of risky behaviors among teens. Parents need to talk to their teens, consistently set rules and expectations for their teens behavior, and monitor what their teen does. Parents can support positive peer relationships by giving their teenagers their love, time, boundaries, and encouragement to think for themselves. Previous research has attributed a girls increased risk of pregnancy to the possible consequences of a father leaving lower family income, conflict at home and weak parental monitoring. Girls whose fathers left either before they were born or up to age 5 were seven to eight times more at risk of becoming pregnant as an adolescent than girls living with their fathers. A fathers departure between ages 6 to13 suggested a two to three times greater risk of becoming pregnant.

Having no father usually means less household income and a greater chance of other disadvantages, such as domestic violence or a depressed mother. Sometimes parents need help talking to their children about such difficult topics as teenage sexuality and pregnancy prevention. Teenage pregnancy prevention must be a way of life and a natural and integral way of thinking for children as the actions that lead to or away from teenage pregnancy lies squarely, and at the end of the day, solely with their teenage children. Children will be greatly influenced by the parental example that has been given them to follow is clear, but they will have to decide for themselves what actions they will take in any given circumstance. Sometimes parents need help talking to their children about such difficult topics as teenage sexuality and pregnancy prevention. Teenage pregnancy prevention must be a way of life and a natural and integral way of thinking for children as the actions that lead to or away from teenage pregnancy lies squarely, and at the end of the day, solely with their teenage children.

Children will be greatly influenced by the parental example that has been given them to follow is clear, but they will have to decide for themselves what actions they will take in any given circumstance. A child who can openly and honestly speak with their Parents about anything and everything literally has the greatest single gift, and the largest possible safety net, a Parent can provide to their child. Children need to know how Parents feel about sex. They need to know the reasons for and against engaging in sexual behaviors and the possible consequences regarding each course of action. Discuss your views about sex and its proper time and place in a healthy and happy life. Parents should just start talking and see where the conversation takes them.

Children are taught in school the importance of safe sex and the use of condoms to prevent an unwanted pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS. Parents should ensure their children understand these issues even if the plan is for their children to not be sexually active at this time in their lives. Having a clear understanding of safe sex practices can prevent a teenage issue that leads to sex from being a larger and more damaging issue than it has to be. Parents need to know who their children are spending time with. They should get to know their childrens friends and their friends family. Friends who share common thoughts and beliefs are more likely to support children in wholesome and proper activities. In the parenting style taken up by the parents, there should be clear family rules regarding the age at which our children can start dating, and those first dates should be group events engaged in wholesome activities.

Parents should also realize that the risk of teenage pregnancy increases dramatically when girls date boys who are 1 to 3 years older than they are. Parents who can help their children see a bright future are the same Parents who are helping the cause of teenage pregnancy prevention. The chances of teenager delaying sexual activity are greatly increased if their futures appear bright, they have goals for their future, and they can see how proper behavior and correct actions will help them get to where they want to go in life. Teenagers who are active and successful in school are more likely to have a clear vision for their future, and hence avoid behavior that could put at risk the future they want to achieve. Parents should help their children to believe in themselves, to have a healthy self-image and positive self-esteem and enjoy a solid vision for their happy tomorrows.

Parents should help teenagers to see that their choices of today will directly affect their tomorrows. Having that clear vision of a bright and hopeful future makes teenage pregnancy prevention a logical and welcome avenue to the future life our children desire so desperately to enjoy. Some parents help children know their parts and to learn their lines well, so that when the action scenes of their lives are lived they can be the hero of their own stories and avoid the heart ache scenes that dont have to be a part of their productions. 2.2:Mass media and the risk of teenage pregnancies among the youth. Mass media is designed to reach large audiences with technology. Its purpose is meant to give us entertainment and information we need to act as a society. Media is everywhere; there is no escaping from it.

Almost every home in urban areas has at least one TV, the internet, and a cell phone. There are more forms of media available today than ever before; consequently, teens are exposed to a lot of information. The media is supposed to portray what is normal; therefore, it affects what society considers normal. Teens are much more impressionable then adults. What the media tells them is normal affects them more. The medias portrayal of body image affects teens negatively through using stereotypes, encouraging sexual behavior, and promoting unnecessary products. The media portrays single parent homes, teen pregnancy, and the social issue that America faces in a positive light. Music Television (MTV) has several shows which portray teen pregnancy as a positive attribute of life: Teen Mom and 16 and Pregnant. Teen Mom is an American reality television series that premiered on MTV on December 8, 2009. The perceived sensitivity of sex as a research topic and a focus on television to the exclusion of other media unfortunately has restricted the kind of research that has been done.

Much of the empirical work has been analyses of content that allow only speculation about what effects the content might have on audiences. But an emerging set of studies that go beyond content to address how audiences select, interpret, and apply sexual content suggests that the media may play an important role, especially for young people Steele, (1999). The mass media are an increasingly accessible way for people to learn about and see sexual behavior Wikipedea, (2010). The media may be especially important for young people as they are developing their own sexual beliefs and patterns of behavior and as parents and schools remain reluctant to discuss sexual topics Roberts, (2000). In the United States, young people spend 6 to 7 hours each day on average with some form of media. A national survey in 1999 found that one third of young children (2 to 7 years old) and two thirds of older children and adolescents (8 to 18 years old) have a television in their own bedroom. Many of those televisions also are hooked up to cable and a Videocassette Recorder (VCR) (Roberts, 2000).

Sexual talk and displays are increasingly frequent and explicit in this mediated world. One content analysis found that sexual content that ranged from flirting to sexual intercourse had increased from slightly more than half of television programs in 1997-1998 to more than two-thirds of the programs in the 1999-2000 season. Depiction of intercourse (suggestive or explicit) occurred in one of every 10 programs (Kunkel, Cope-Farrar, Biely, Farinola, & Donnerstein, 2001). Many teens admit that sexualized content in film, television and music helps influence them to engage in sexual activity before they are ready. One fifth to one half of music videos, depending on the music genre for example country, rock, rap portray sexuality or eroticism DuRant et al., (1997). Two thirds of Hollywood movies made each year are R-rated; most young people have seen these movies long before they are the required 16 years old Greenberg et al., (1993).

Although teen girls and womens magazines, such as Seventeen and Glamour have increased their coverage of sexual health issues over the past decade, the majority of advertising and editorial content in these magazines remains focused on what girls and women should do to get and keep their man Walsh-Childers, Gotthoffer, & Lepre, ( 2002). The Internet has increased dramatically the availability of sexually explicit content. Computer and Internet use is diffusing more rapidly than any previous technology; as of the end of 1999, more than half (56%) of all adults in the United States were online. It is expected that by 2010 most U.S. homes with children will have access to the Internet Taylor, (1999). The word sex is the most popular search term used on the internet today Cyber Atlas, (2001).

The internet may have both positive and negative effects on sexual health. According to one national survey of young people (10-17 years old) who regularly used the internet, one out of four said he or she had encountered unwanted pornography in the past year, and one out of five had been exposed to unwanted sexual solicitations or approaches Finkelhor, Mitchell, & Wolak, (2000). At the same time, a number of sites, such as the American Social Health Associations, promote healthy sexual behavior and provide young people with advice on communication in relationships as well as methods for protecting against sexually transmitted diseases. Despite increasing public concern about the potential health risks of early, unprotected sexual activity, most of the mass media rarely depict three Cs of responsible sexual behavior: Commitment, Contraceptives, and consideration of Consequences. Although more than half of the couples who engage in sexual intercourse on television are in an established relationship, 1 in 10 are couples who have met only recently; one quarter do not maintain a relationship after having sex Kunkel et al., ( 2001).

Only about 1 in 10 of the programs on television that include sexual content mentions the possible consequences or the need to use contraceptives or protection against STDs. Unintended pregnancies rarely are shown as the outcome of unprotected sex, and STDs other than HIV/AIDS are almost never discussed Kunkel et al., (2001). Abortion is a taboo topic, too controversial for commercial television and magazines Walsh-Childers et al., (2002). The urge to have sex and get pregnancy is now stronger because of the fact that one has an encounter with media. There are teenagers who are getting pregnant just to be on these reality television shows.Teen sexuality is influenced by the mass media today more than any other time in history. Internet, television, music video and sexually explicit lyrics all contribute to adolescents attitudes and behavior concerning sexual activity. Only 9% of the sex scenes on 1,300 of cable network programming discusses and deals with the negative consequences of sexual behavior.

The Internet and the anonymity therein allow adolescents real concerns relating to false information on health issues, sexuality, and sexual violence in the world of intimate sexual relationships. In 2006, a survey conducted by The Observer in Britain showed that most adolescents in Britain were waiting longer to have sexual intercourse than they were only a few years earlier. In 2002, 32% of teens were having sex before the age of 16; in 2006 it was only 20%. The average age a teen lost his/her virginity was 17.13 years in 2002; in 2006, it was 17.44 years on average for girls and 18.06 for boys.

The most notable drop among teens who reported having sex was 14 and 15 year olds. One group of Canadian researchers found a relationship between self esteem and sexual activity. They found that students, especially girls, who were verbally abused by teachers or rejected by their peers, were more likely than other students to engage in sex by the end of the Grade 7. The researchers speculate that low self esteem increases the likelihood of sexual activity: low self-esteem seemed to explain the link between peer rejection and early sex. Girls with a poor self-image may see sex as a way to become popular, according to the researchers.

2.3:Peer Pressure and the risk of teenage Pregnancy among the youth The incidence of teenage pregnancy in relationship with peer pressure has become a global issue as a result of its consequence on population health, growth and development. It is undoubtedly a worldwide concern since the Cairo international conference on population and development held in 1994 has raised it as an issue among others. Teenagers are children who fall within the chronological age of twelve to nineteen years. Teen, of course, is a period when a child begins to develop secondary sexual characteristics, started to assume higher social responsibilities and started to express sexual feelings and desires. This is a delicate period in the life of the children for all physical changes have great impacts on the psychological functioning of the child. Teenagers risky sexual behaviours are major factors which predispose them to unwanted pregnancies.

Non perception of risks in their sexual behaviours and lack of adequate information about reproduction and sexual health issues are largely responsible for teenage pregnancies. Sexual behaviours of the teenagers depend largely on societal constrictions and the level of cultural permissiveness which dictate the modes of sexual practices (Crystal, 1990). Biological determinants, socialization agents such as family, peers, religious institutions and mass media have powerful repressive effects on teenagers sexual behaviours. An adolescent female in need of money is likely to be tempted to engage in pre-marital sex by friends who come from rich families or those that use sexual activity to get money and this could result into incident of unwanted teenage pregnancy. Students whose parents are low income earners face the higher risk of engaging in pre-marital sex and this could eventually lead to teenage pregnancy and increase in drop out rate of school.

Lack of adequate knowledge of sexuality education accounts for increase in teenage pregnancies. This is because; information about sex is got from peers who may also be less knowledgeable. Knowledge of sexuality education is essential to the development of right sexual attitudes and behaviours. When adequate and accurate information are not available, many teenage students would accept miss-information for truth. Peer group influence is another factor that predisposes teenagers to early and unwanted pregnancies. According to the result of the study conducted by Oladepo and Akintayo (2001), peer group influence was ranked first among the causes of teenage pregnancies. Free mixing of the opposite sex also linked with prevalence of teenage pregnancies. Akinboye (1982) in his contribution states that unrestricted interactions and social activities regularly involving male and female adolescents tend to create an atmosphere for inter-personal affection, love and even result into sexual activities.

Peer influence on the youth sometimes is related to going out or visiting different places where one may learn risky behaviours. Watching sexual stimulating magazines and movies may expose the teenagers to early sexual life and unwanted pregnancies. Participating in nude festivals and watching of pornographic films and images on the internet are also risk factors. Family instability and disorganisation which may be caused by poverty, lack of mutual trust and understanding between parents may cause child neglect and consequently could result into teenage pregnancy and increase in drop out rate of the school. Legalization of abortion and early exposure to sexual life can cause teenage pregnancy.

According to the report of a study conducted in Nigeria by Nicholas in 1986, he found out that 24.4 per cent of the girls by the age of 15 years have had sexual intercourse, 63 per cent by 18 years while half of the Nigerian females have become mothers before the age of 20 years. Peer influence is also directly and indirectly related to pre-mature drop out of school which is also a factor which predisposes female students to fall a victim of teenage pregnancy. The drop-out female students after leaving the school due to one reason or the other find it difficult to cope with life; so, took to hawking and in the process may get impregnated. In this case friends may influence one to get married or to join businesses.



This chapter presents the research design, population, sampling strategies, data collection methods, data collection instruments, data quality control, data collection procedure and data analysis that will be used in the study.

3.1:Research design

The study will use an explanatory survey design that will be quantitative and descriptive in nature. This design was chosen because it can appropriately investigate the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancy among the youth in orphanage homes in Rubaga Division of Kampala District. Orphanage homes are chosen because, in most cases these are the places where the children who are victims of unwanted pregnancies are taken for care.

3.2:Area of study

The study will be conducted in Rubaga Division in Nakulabye Parish that is COBAP Nakulabye, Nalukolongo Orphanage home, Sanyu Babies home in Namirembe Bakuli Parish, Hope Orphanage home and Wakhissa Ministries in Bakuli. Five orphanage homes will be randomly selected as they are the only orphanage homes available in the area of study. The researcher will also go to 3 radio stations in the area of study that is Super FM, Central Broadcasting Service and Ssuubi FM.

3.3:Study population

The study will involve 60 care providers and employees of the orphanage homes at least 12 from each of the selected orphanage homes. 15 employees of radio stations in the area of study will also be used to answer questionnaires. At least 5 employees from each radio station that is Super FM, Central Broadcasting Service and Ssuubi FM. The researcher will target presenters of those programs related to the topic of study. Children from the orphanage homes are left out because in most cases they are young and below 18. The researchers may even seek for secondary data from the records available. Questionnaires will be used for they are to bring out concerns and needs of the target population in relation to the care providers and children under care. The care providers are chosen because they are in direct administration of the affairs regarding the children and they are equipped with information about unwanted pregnancies

3.4:Data collection

The main instruments for data collection were interview guides and questionnaires. Questionnaires will be administered to collect data about the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancy among the youth in orphanage homes in Rubaga Division of Kampala District.

3.5:Procedure and data collection

The researcher obtained an introduction letter from the department of Mental Health and Community Psychology from her supervisor. The researcher then will approached the administrators of the five orphanage homes and the three radio stations and introduced herself with the help of the letter. The researcher then will ask for permission to conduct research in these organizations and their areas of operation. The different respondents, service providers are to be requested to consent before the questionnaire is administered on to them. Informed consent will sought after the respondents are assured that the research findings are to be treated as confidential.

3.5:Data analysis

Data collected will be edited, categorized or coded and organized in themes and there after it will be analyzed in line with the objectives set at the beginning of the study. For the quantitative data, tally method will be used manually, similar responses will be grouped together to ascertain the number and percentage of respondents who came up with similar views. For qualitative data, views and opinions of respondents will grouped, analyzed and established if they have a bearing on the relationship between parenting styles, mass media, peer pressure and the risk of teenage pregnancy among the youth. All this will be done by use of frequency tables and tabulations at the level of report writing and presentation.

3.6:Limitations of the study

1Willingness of the organization management to allow the researcher to use the premises during the research period. This is because sometimes information broadcasted is kept confidential and people are keen on exposure. 2The results of the study may depend on some respondents willingness to answer the asked questions 3Literature available about the subject may be limited and difficult to access.

3.7:Ethical considerations

Informed consent will be sought after the respondents are assured that the research findings are to be treated as confidential. Participation in the study will be voluntary and individuals will be free to participate or not to participate even withdrawing from the study will be accepted. Since there is a lot of stigma attached to unwanted teenage pregnancy, only individuals who are willing to disclose will be studied. Information will not be tied to individuals to ensure there is no personalization of issues discussed. The researcher will not disclose the names of the radio stations and orphanage homes.


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