The Managerial Revolution Essay

Published: 2020-04-22 08:06:56
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Through Julia and Winston as a pair Orwell demonises the state by showing that it destroys love. The last thing within Winston that is torn from him is his love of Julia, and it is at this point that he makes the change from Man to Shell. The last character OBrien in description seems calm, reasonable, manipulative and easy to talk to, he is glib and quick witted. He is Orwells representative of the Party, he is almost Satanic in the way that he converts and perverts those that try to battle wits with him, and he is insidious in spreading the propaganda of the party and converting, then destroying those who rebel.

Herald of pain and suffering, he is the penultimate evil and representative of all that Orwell hates. Orwell makes him out to be despicable, obviously he is psychopathic, without feeling or remorse, and his sense of morality is so twisted that it is barely recognisable as human sentiment, but Orwells technique goes further than this, he even describes him as physically ugly: There were pouches under the eyes, the skin sagged away from the cheekbones The Authors purpose in creating OBrien is to primarily to allow him to explore the political message that he wants to write of in more detail.

Whilst a generic and simplistic political message such as Totalitarian systems are bad is a relatively simple to encode into the plot of a text such as this, it is far more complex if the author wishes to discuss the specifics of politics. As Orwell was primarily an essayist he was not used to showing his beliefs in such a generalised way as a conventional political fiction would allow, so it was necessary to find a way to examine the political doctrine of a centralised economy in detail, but more than that it needed to be accessible to the average reader.

It was with these needs in mind that Orwell devised OBriens role in the plot, it is his discussions with Winston over the party politics that Orwell uses to explore these concepts with the reader. When OBrien explains, it is Orwell who wants to show the reader something. For example Orwell uses OBrien to present his idea that power is not a means, it is an end. The descriptions are clipped and precise, and flowery language is not to be found within the pages of the novel.

His dry, clipped style adds perfectly to the anguish he describes in his foretelling of the future. The book is primarily dominated by narrative, Orwell is only interested in Winstons conversations so far as they serve his political purpose, and outside the Ministry of Love, almost all of Winstons conversations are too censored to show any political belief whatsoever. Therefore Orwell is forced to focus his work on the thoughts of Winston to explore his political ideas.

There are certain themes that Orwell uses to better portray the ideas that he wishes to explore. Primarily there is the theme of the destruction of love, Family love: between Winstons family, and between the Parsons family who live next door. Sexual love: between Julia and Winston. Platonic love: between friends. All these ideals the Party has destroyed. This is just a fairly simple way for Orwell to engender a hate for the Party in his reader, a hate which would enhance Orwells political message on the evils of totalitarianism.

Other more subtle metaphors and literary methods that Orwell uses are: the glass paperweight is used to represent freedom from the Party. It is bought when Winston first begins to deviate from the Party doctrine, and it is finally smashed by the guard when Winston is captured. Here we see that the coral, like his freedom, was actually far smaller than it appeared within the glass. Through the same area of the book the Rhyme of St Clements is used by Orwell to establish a growing tension, and is symbolic of the inevitable end to Julia and Winstons affair.

This happens because as one reads the text the reader doubtless remembers the full poem, knowing the final line Here comes a chopper to chop off your head, it is hard to relax as one sees its approach. This increase in tension serves Orwells political purpose he wishes to focus the reader on the helplessness before the Party that Winston and Julia are victim to, the feeling that their defeat is inevitable adds to this, and is furthered by Orwells use of the Rhyme.

Above all Orwells literary methods serve to create a book that has stood as one of the greatest political writings of all time, these techniques have allowed Orwell to write a novel that is impossible to read without being changed forever. Merely skimming through the text for the sake of distraction, which surely was never Orwells purpose; it is inevitable that Orwells political beliefs will leave their mark on the reader.

This novel has spawned a thousand fictions of its type, and many great works such as the novel A Handmaids Tale by Margaret Atwood or the film Brazil, V for Vendetta owe their lineage to the work of Orwell. More than this the ideas that his idea of language as explored in the book have influenced the English tongue forever, words such as Doublethink and Newspeak will go down in the dictionary for all time, as will an adjective that I think he would be proud of Orwellian.

However the scope of influence of Nineteen Eighty-four goes beyond literature even beyond language¦ , to the very subject on which he was commenting. Nineteen Eighty-four changed politics forever, Orwells warning, along with others of the time was indeed heeded, and humanity was diverted from a path that could easily have been as self-destructive as that described in the novel.


Burnham, J. The Managerial Revolution 1941; John Day & Co. Crick, Bernard, Oxford University Press critical edition of 1984, 1984

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