The research paper will explain the role of the Administrative Assistant and office staff. The paper will discuss the Work of the Ministerial Staff; Competencies in Ministry, issues in leadership, Human resource management, the church ministry and etc. The research in the paper will be from the prospectus of Christian church ministries.
Human Resource Management:
The challenge facing Eric Perbos-Brinck of orienting his diverse employees to his company and to the French culture reflects only a small aspect of the human resource management (HRM) challenges facing todays managers. If an organization doesnt take its HRM responsibilities seriously, work performance and goal accomplishment may suffer. The quality of an organization is, to a large degree, merely the summation of the quality of the people it hires and keeps. Getting and keeping competent employees are critical to the success of every organization, whether the organization is just starting or has been in the business for years. Therefore part of every managers job in the organization function is human resource management. (Robins et al, 2001)
Through out the world, every organization is practicing HRM to reduce the differences and status between the managers and employees. By giving the slight authorities and freedom to work, the employees can do better. The HR manager brings the workforce together and he knows how to properly maintain its workforce by various tools and methods. In recent years the operations of HRM have been changes from last 10 years. The world of work in which Human Resource Management (HRM) operates has changed dramatically in the last half century. Not surprisingly, therefore, the HRM concepts and practices being created and carried out today are also increasingly different from those of the past. (Abraham K. Korman et al, 1999)
Importance of Human Resource Management:
Most of the organizations refer their employees as their biggest asset. They think employees as the most important part of the organization. These organizations have a separate HRM department under which they keep track on their employees like hiring them, firing them. Evaluating them and awarding them.
Various studies have concluded that an organizations human resources can be a significant source of competitive advantage. (Robins et al, 2001).
For achieving success in the business environment against the competitors, the companies have to think that it employees are the part of the organization. Because they are the one making the organization successful. The managers should know how to make their employees more effective and efficient. So by viewing the relation between managers and employees as partners not as a servant has also put a positive impact on the success of the organization.
In addition to their potential importance as part of organization strategy and contribution to competitive advantage an organizations HRM practices have been found to have a significant impact on organization performance (Robins et al, 2001). HRM plays an important role in practicing the daily HRM responsibilities which help in improving and increasing the value of an organization in the market.
HRM practices could increase its market value by as much as 30 percent (Robins et al, 2001). One of the most important parts of the HR manager is to provide knowledge, skills and use their abilities in most affective and efficient manner. Increasing the motivational factor and providing them with rewards and incentives is also the major role of HR manager.
There are certain HRM activities that must be completed in order to ensure that the organization has qualified people to perform the work that needs to be done. (Robins et al, 2001).
Developments in Strategic Human Resources Management:
The role of HRM has been changed from last 10 years. So much development has taken place in the field of management with regards to HRM. The debates have been going on in order to properly understand the role of HR managers. The main issue which occupied academics in the 1980s was the evolution of HRM. In this regard, the debate was mainly on the exploration of the salient aspects of the transformation of personnel management into HRM. (Budhwar et al 2001). The debates started by mingling the industrial relation with HR then combine business strategies with the HR line managers and finally seeing HRM as a source of competitive advantage for organizations (Budhwar et al 2001). The success of an organization is also depended on the HRM. With these developments the nature of Human Resource (HR) function has changed from being reactive, prescriptive, and administrative to being proactive, descriptive and executive (Boxall, 1994). (Budhwar et al 2001).
Strategic Human Resources Management (SHRM) is the purposeful resolution of Human Resource administration and policy issues so as to enhance a public agencys effectiveness (Klingner 1993) Human resources Management give birth to strategic human resource management. The need of SHRM is required to fill the gap which HRM alone cant fill it. SHRM enhances the role of manager more clearly and precisely. The factors which give birth to SHRM are:
1. Recognition that Human resources are critical. There are companies strategic planning to accomplish its goals and mission. Those mission and goals are important for managers and employees to achieve them and HRM department plays a very important role in accomplishing the companys target. The emergence of SHRM due to heightened concern for agency productivity and accountability means that better information systems are essential (Klingner 1993).
2. A shift from position management to work and employees. Due to political and economic factors the mind of the manager has sifted towards work management. It also because the employee wants flexibility in their workplace and should awarded and need appraisals from his managers. Personnel specialists have continued to demand flexibility and equitable reward allocation through such alterations to classification and pay systems as rank-in-person personnel systems, broad pay banding, and group performance evaluation and reward systems (Shoop, 1991). This trend coincides with employee needs for utilization, development, and recognition. (Klingner 1993).
3. More innovation: In the emerging business world, there is an intense competition between every organization. Without innovation no company can survive longer. To bring more innovation the manager should manage it workforce in a manner that it should provide new information and try to implement new things.
4. But long range effectiveness in cultivating innovation requires a reward system that reinforces risk-taking, and does not penalize failure ” two characteristics that are often in short supply within the culture of most public agencies. (Klingner 1993).
5. Asset development and cost control. The main purpose of the company is to reduce the cost of the labor and develop or hire such employees which can benefit the company in the long run. One reason for this increased professionalism and innovation among public personnel managers has been the need to develop and apply two apparently contradictory human resource strategies: policies for Kleenex employees designed to control costs, and policies for asset employees designed to ensure loyalty, participation and development. (Klingner 1993).
The relation between Employer and Employee:
In the growing world of business, the companies mostly make strategies to recruit, hire and reward their employees. This issue has become more important now days. Because of intense competition companies are trying to hire educated, skilled and experienced workers which can benefit the company.
As organizations employing as many as hundreds of thousands became dominant influences in the world of work and as questions about selection, training, work motivation, and compensation practices became more challenging in a growing, dynamic society, the need for professionally trained, skilled personnel became great (Korman 1999).
The motivational factor and a strong bonding between the managers and employee give a positive outcome for the success of the organization. This concept has emerged with the changing role of HRM. But apart from this, the main motive of any employee is to gain personal growth through which it can fulfill it personal need.
Important too as HRM developed during this era was that the policies and practices developed and implemented were based in large part on the assumption that a desire for personal growth was the most important motivational characteristic of the workforce. (Korman 1999).
It is the role of HR Manager to provide the intrinsic as well as extrinsic factors of an employee. There are different motivational theories are provided in the literature of management. Manager should be well aware of them in order to maintain a healthy environment in the workplace.
HRM could help employees meet their most important needs because the employees desire to attain positive outcomes (both intrinsic and extrinsic), that is, self-enhancement, and their willingness to work for them were congruent with organizational needs for effective performance. (Korman 1999)
The Equipping Church:
To explain the role and responsibilities of an admistrator assistant and the other staff, a lot of researches have been done. In contrast to admistrative role, the information is provided by explaining the scenario of churches. It seems to be difficult for the churches in the past to build and control their ministry. The senior pastor is the person who is leading and controlling the people in the church.
They expect their leaders to support and direct them into fruitful mission. Senior pastors are key influencers in this process. (John t. Hawco)
But the position of executive pastor is confusing. He didnt know that what he had to do.
For approximately 20 years the role of executive pastor was not defined. The general perception about executive pastor was that he is not biblically acceptable. Many theories and models have been drawn to compare in order to show the similarity in some respect among Senior and executive pastor. The role of executive pastor has been confined through churches hard word and also derived from the organization itself.
Most executive pastor positions have come to exist through church travail, and their job descriptions have been invented from within the organization. (John t. Hawco)
In order to mould both senior and executive pastors in an effective form, the leadership quality should be there. Leadership is the quality to manage people, provide them with the certain path and the sense of achievement. It is the commitment to ensure that the task will be done in most effective and efficient manner. The leaders are fully committed to give positive outcome which assigned to them. Leaders are the people who can bring positive changes for the organization. He can heighten it from his strong determination and can also decrease the organizational strength.
Leadership is the process of influencing team members to work hard towards, and be committed to, team goals. (Karlene Sugarman)
The strong relation between both the pastors can bring about positive outcome and organizational success. The success of a team is depended on the hard work, quality of the work and effort they put on achieving their goals. These efforts will automatically transfer to the staff members who help them to lead, feed and develop the church.
Consequently, the quality of the working relationship between the senior pastor and the executive pastor is vital to the success of the team, and also to the teams potential to successfully shepherd, lead, and manage the growing church. (John t. Hawco)
As churches in America grew and added staff, the senior pastor suddenly became the chief of staff, chief fund raiser, mentor and coach, and he just ran out of steam. And so churches experimented with associate pastors to help, but that just didnt work. What those churches needed was a point person who was responsible for managing and leading the whole church. (John t. Hawco)
The main reason behind the problem is that abruptly the senior pastor became the chief of staff, fund raiser, counselor, and leader when the churches started growing itself and more staff added to it. As these responsibilities of a senior pastor were increase, it resulted in a burnout. Then they planed to hire associate pastor which could help the senior pastor with his work but the associate pastor was not the only solution. The requirement was of leaders who can lead and direct the people in an appropriate way. The need for leaders was very important at that point. Executive pastor was also important at its place. As he was leading the leaders by giving them training and stuff.
To deal with this entire problem the pastors decided to lay a ministry that can be helpful to lead and manage the people more effectively. According to Sue Mallory, this change of ministry was like a revolution for the people. They were curious about the change but they accept the change if they would realize the change in their daily lives.
After all, we had voted! But once people realized that having a new organization and methodology for doing ministry meant a change in their personal way of doing church it become difficult to move forward. People were enthusiastic about the idea of change until it affected them personally.(Sue Mallory)
The successful ministry can work when the staff was dedicated and working hard. But In laying out the ministry, the problems that can arise to the senior pastor are: Stress and burnouts. The pastor ministry is a stressful work. So many people are influencing through his guidance and preaching. A study of nearly five thousand parish ministries from twenty-one denominations concluded that 75 percent of pastors experience stress at one or more time in their career. One-fifth of them reported stress during three or more periods and one fourth during two such periods. (Donald P. Smith)
Burnout is also one of the factors. Most of the pastors face burnout during their working environment. Even just because of burnout so many pastors left their job. Many researches showed that pastors are the person who faces stress and burnout more than the other experts. But for the effective ministerial layout, the stress is very imperative.
Stress and Burnout:
Stress is the outcome of the peer pressures and occurred due to a particular situation. These pressures are the demands which imposed upon the person to fulfill the requirements in healthy manner. Stress is not destructive for the person or for the organization. It can bring healthy ideas and innovations.
Without stress it is impossible to come up with innovative ideas and effective organization. Thats why most of the organizations put their staff on stress so that they can use to it and bring change. Stress changes into burnout when the individual come a cross with excessive amount of work.
The amount and nature of stress makes a big difference. Excessive stress may cause burnout, whatever we do. Stress that impacts areas of our special vulnerability can be particularly difficult to handle. But normally, the outcome depends on what we do with the stress we are experiencing. (Donald P. Smith)
During stress many pastors handle it in very efficient manner. It is generally accepted that what ever stress facing by the individual in a work place can depend on the person. He can take this stress as a challenge or can crush the work. The one should recognize the cause of stress and try to merge with that stress in such a manner that the person would be easily appearing on the surface with success and determination in his eyes.
On the other head, Burnout is the result of intense work load. It also losses the energy and ideas of the person. In a stressful atmosphere when the burnout occurs, the work becomes unorganized and uncontrollable.
The image is of fire that burns up vitality and leaves one empty, disillusioned, and epithetic. Its symptoms include exhaustion, fatigue, frequent headaches, gastrointestinal disturbance, weight loss, sleeplessness, depression and shortness of breath. (Donald P. Smith)
Donald P. Smith in his book of Empowering ministry explains the seven major reasons for stress in pastors ministry.
The pastors faces overwork because their work never done or completed its an on going process. Their callings and other reasons related to church administration would lead to work load but not every pastor is facing it. Most of them are in a state of overwork also because of their strong relation and determination for God and for the God creatures. From surveys and research the reason which leads to overwork is time management for the pastors. Because they are committed to too many work at one point of time.
Donald P. Smith found the difference between the solo pastors, head of staff and pastor of different sized parishioners. They found that in big congregations the pastors are facing stress very often when the demand increases. Head of staff usually comes across with stress as compare to solo pastor, because of division of the work to the other staff members when working under large organization. Where as, the solo pastor experience excessive overwork because he alone and he dont have staff members to share the work with them.
But the role of pastor never ended. Every time he experience problems and demands. Their religious events occur time after time and the pastor has to face the problem of the people over and over.
Smith quoted the saying by John Sanford The ministering person is like Sisyphus in Greek mythology, whose fate it was to have to push a great stone up a mountain only to have it roll down again just before reaching the top. This feeling that a job is endless, that you never quite reach the top of the mountain no mater how hard you try, can lead to exhaustion.
Role Conflict and ambiguity:
Role conflict and ambiguity exists when there are so much high expectations. In case of Pastors ministries role conflict and ambiguity is high. Mostly in pastors when they face conflict and ambiguity their stress increases. The excessive amount of expectation can lead to stress.
Needy people who drain over energy:
Dealing with needy people is the main work of pastors. During meeting with needy people the stress increases and its also a lost of blood. The energy level diminishes. These kinds of people needs are not obvious. They are difficult to understand and deal with them.
Sometimes you must simply let them go, and recognize that your help is not going to be enough. But letting go also can be very stressful to one who is committed to helping others. (Smith)
Confusing persona with identity:
In empowering pastorals the self identity plays a vital role and the person should show himself as what he is actually from inside. Adopting this kind of behavior is essential in fulfilling the needs and expectation which the people have with their pastors. In this case the pastors can experience stress when they realize that they are wearing the professional mask. Persona is usually important when dealing with outside world. Even it can bring valuable outcome.
Living with pressing personal and family needs:
The Stress can be encounter when the pastor knows that he is ignoring his personal and family needs. In such situations, the level of stress upon pastor increases and its difficult to cope with it.
The need for leadership and Power:
The churches started to bring about change and feel there is need for leadership and control. For such circumstances, they split the pastoral office into Senior Pastor and executive pastoral teams. The roles were assigned to them. So that the entire work load would not be only on the shoulder of senior pastor. This systemic way of doing work also reduces the work loads and burnouts. Seniors pastor can now easily return to his work to look after the primary things and direct the people so that the ministry of a church would run in most efficient manner. The responsibilities of executive staff is to lead, direct and supervising of the staff. He was behind the senior pastor. He was representing the senior pastor in his absence. And he was also dealing with other program which should be done by his own.
This contemporary paradigm has been illustrated by various analogies, one of which is that of a marriage. The home is managed by two leaders, sharing the load with differing roles, with one carrying the ultimate responsibility for the leadership office (the senior pastor). This allusion to marriage, referenced by both ecclesiastical and marketplace writers, illustrates the power, trust, and community involved in the best of SPEP teams. This team has also been referred to as a leadership couple. (John t. Hawco)
The executive pastor is loaded with lots of responsibilities. The main factor that makes the executive more prominent and success in its work is the good ability of leadership and power. These qualities can lead EP towards the path of success and though his hard work and good leadership can make the organization more effective and healthy. The power is important for executive pastor in a sense that he can work easily and make desirable decisions in the favors of churches.
The senior pastor shares power and authority in the fullest sense to enable the executive role to truly work. If he does share it, the executive pastor must be a faithful steward of that trust. Therefore, to be effective, the SPEP team needs to be highly relational. Further, the church must be ready to follow this contemporary design in staffing. Poor choices in motives, gifting, personalities, and timing could easily contribute to the failure of such a team, and consequently create loss for the church of God. (John t. Hawco)
Church Ministry, Growth and Staffing:
Leadership is the God gifted skill. It is the gift that God installed in one to serve the church. The leadership consists of both management skills and interpersonal skills. When both these things combine in human being it can enhance the church administration.
But gifts are not the only factor that helps the church move ahead. Human personalities that utilize these gifts and other acquired skills, spiritual dynamics of renewal or apostasy, and historical and cultural circumstances under the sovereignty of God all play a part in the effectiveness of the church in advancing the Kingdom of God at any point in time. (John t. Hawco)
At this point it is important to know what mainly the leadership is:
What is Leadership?
Leadership is the way to direct, motivate and organize individuals effectively and efficiently in achieving certain goal and objectives.
Leadership is the art of getting someone else to do something you want done because he wants to do it. Dwight D. Eisenhower (http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/leadership_main.html).
Leadership is the quality to manage people, provide them with the certain path and the sense of achievement. It is the commitment to ensure that the task will be done in most effective and efficient manner. The leaders are fully committed to give positive outcome which assigned to them.
Leadership is the process of influencing team members to work hard towards, and be committed to, team goals. (Karlene Sugarman) (http://www.psywww.com/sports/leader.htm)
Leadership organizes people in a way that the entire task should be done in a proper way and individual complete that work with full motivation and enthusiasm. A leader knows how to take work from its group of people and knows the skills of every individual, according to which the leader defines work to every one.
Leadership is influencing people to get things done to a standard and quality above their norm. And doing it willingly. (http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/leadership_main.html)
The examples of leadership are: A coach of a team who directs the players that how to play a game to win the match. The leader of a country who wants to implement rules and regulations for the citizens of his country. The head of an organization is leading his workers that how the work should be done and in what manner.
Leadership is like an adventure its not a science. In science the scientist know that what will be the outcome. But in leadership the leader works hard to achieve the certain goal but dont know that what will be the outcome. Leader tries to come up with desired output and manage their group of people in such a way that they would succeed in their mission. If the leader fails to judge or his planning fails then it means the leader is lacking somewhere. He has to put some more effort in a particular area of his leadership.
Leadership is not a science. So being a leader is an adventure because you can never be sure whether you will reach your goal ” at least this time. (Karlene Sugarman) http://www.psywww.com/sports/leader.htm
Kirkman and Rosen (1999) stated that empowered individuals feel as though they are performing meaningful work that advances the organization as a whole. This sense of psychological empowerment moves team members beyond the point where they only feel the freedom to function autonomously. This type of empowerment motivates members to act upon that freedom. (Michael Shane Wood)
The Issue of leadership:
As the changes occurred, the issue of leadership also arrived that who would be responsible for the leadership and control. Every one was confused between senior and executive pastor responsibilities.
By superimposing the different breadths of oversight, one can see that the senior pastor clearly stands in a much different position than the rest of the staff, no matter how large the church grows. Executive pastors of very large churches come across the closest to having the same breadth of oversight as the senior pastor. Still, even in those situations the senior pastor continues to have a slight edge in oversight, or at least the congregation tends to perceive it as so. (John Hawco)
In the above quotation it is obvious that there was a different breadth of oversight that is creating the issue of leadership. Most of the people argued that Executive pastor should have the leadership power and control. If the executive pastor is responsible to lead, feed and manage the staff then he should posses certain qualities and characteristics which can make him more valuable for the churches.
Characteristics of Leadership:
The Ingredients of leadership are that a good leader challenges to do his best in every field he opt with a strong determination and setting a first-rate example by illuminating the reason for instructions and procedures. He polishes his thoughts before he present them to others and is incredibly objective about things that he contract with and never give up. He is able to be strategically agile, offer effectively communicating ideas and build value-added relationships. Some of the main ingredients of an engineering leadership are Integrity, Courage, Charisma, Empathy, constancy and persistence.
Integrity is to believe in you. You know that what is right and what is wrong for you and for your organization. The commitment, honesty and hard work with the people under you and with the administration.
Its learning to forgive and forget when appropriate, both with others and yourself.2 the people you want to influence will not rise to a higher standard of excellence than what they observe in you. (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4083/is_200402/ai_n9392758)
The integrity is the one which build cumulative trust i.e. achieving desired results, indicative of concern and believe. These factors are important to build goodwill of a person in front of others. In churches to catch the trust of the people is foremost. Through which the pastor can manage and can easily lead them.
Bill Hybels, senior pastor at Willow Creek Community Church, insists that of the qualities he looks for in leaders and potential staff, integrity, or character, is first and foremost.38 Since team playing involves so much mutual trust and support, those who see ministry as teamwork will put the utmost value on character, integrity, and honesty. (John Hawco)
Charisma is the aim to achieve the goal, and that will also effects others through which your thoughts and ideas will be transferred to other and they will help to attain them at appropriate manner.
The deeper the passion for your mission, the more it acts as a magnet for others. Charisma transmits your vision or objective with meaning and inspires others.
Max Weber is the person who first used the world charismatic leadership. He says that set apart from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least . . . exceptional powers and qualities . . . and on the basis of them the individual concerned is treated as a leader. (John Hawco)
Constancy is the persons honesty, credulity and has qualities of good interpersonal skills. Constancy is related to the words u say and actions you do should reflect each other. It means that there is no negative part of your personality.
Constancy allows you to establish a stable frame of mind, not allowing circumstances to dictate your actions. (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4083/is_200402/ai_n9392758)
With out vision no organization can be run. Until the organizations have the clear vision that what they have to achieve and how, no organization can be effective. To clear the vision in the minds of the staff member, the leader plays a vital role. Without leader the goal can not be installed in the mind of the others. Leader is the one who direct them and show them the way towards success.
Vision is a big contributor to successful leadership. Church leaders have spoken much about the power of vision and values.46 A true leader is adept at communicating the picture of a preferred future (vision). He then embraces and shares the values (guiding principles) that are strategically needed to get there.
How can u be a good Leader?
First of all the sign of a good leader is that he know his role, task, responsibilities and source of power. The source of power is the resources which are available to a leader and he knows how to accomplish his task by using them fully. Source can be technical support or human resource. Through these resources and support the leader lead his group of people.
The greatest source of power available to a leader is the trust that derives from faithfully serving followers.
To evaluate that am I a good leader or not the person should know few things:
1. The person should evaluate himself that he can provide good feedback to others and can direct the other to achieve certain goals.
2. The person should be reflective i.e. he can learn from his pass experiences and ignore those mistakes in future. He should know that what is right and what is wrong for his failure and for his success.
3. Self examine you. See that you can be motivated and can understand the behaviors of others.
4. The person should a long time learner and can educate himself till the end of his life.
The development of leadership in terms of marketplace organization is explained in the following paragraphs. Human resource partnership with line managers is very effective for achieving a goal. HR people are the leaders which are leading them and providing the lower mangers with full knowledge and skills; this also keeps a line of management in the business.
To create value and deliver results, the human resource (HR) professionals, in partnership with the line managers for running the business, will have to define the deliverables that enhance the performance of their businesses. (Joe Bellefeuille)
Leader divided the roles in such a way that every one is responsible for there own work and try to accomplish them fully. The people who work in engineering field are very professionals who maintain a two-fold balance between development activities and people activities, and a focus on day to day operations and strategic plans. The day to day results and the future planning are two opposite ways of one spectrum and process and people are another end of the spectrum therefore the two by two spectrums can be created which forms a quadrant. For good leadership management and for successful business the four quarter spectrum must be adopted. (Joe Bellefeuille)
According to Joe Bellefeuille, there are three spectrums through which the activities of each and every person playing their role in a workplace can understand their role in the organization. The first spectrum is strategic partnership in which the leaders have to evaluate the strengths and weakness inside their organization. In second spectrum, it finds the acceptable ways to continuously improve themselves and increase efficiency.
This metaphor coupled with administrative efficiency implies this role ferrets our unnecessary costs, improves efficiency, and constantly finds new ways to do things better. (Joe Bellefeuille)
The third quadrant is fully train the employees in order to make them effective for the company. And the fourth quadrant is the management of transformation and change which relate to the changes that can bring more productivity in the organization.
Change refers to the ability of an organization to implement continuous improvement and occasional breakthrough in all organizational activities. (Joe Bellefeuille)
The changing context of Church ministry
Now days, the American churches are going through attention-grabbing era. The issue of staffing and demographic diversion is like a hot cake. The issue was so much exaggerated in US not in other countries because Congregational sizes. The churches are of big sizes and need more leadership and management. Roles of Pastoral staff are more diverse as compare to few years back. Now they have staff for every department and its not different from any organization.
Churches and ministries now have staff dedicated to the business and management dimensions: information technology director, minister of stewardship, and church administrator. (John t. Hawco)
The Emergence of Executive Pastor:
With passage of time, the executive pastor are emerging in churches and playing their valuable role but are not enough to cater the need of the church ministries. Executive pastor are doing so much working and contributing their efforts and hard work to manage, lead and direct the staff of churches. Even they are proving themselves as a right hand for the senior pastor. Forty years back, the role of executive pastor was not defined and clear. Administration of church was heard off but executive pastor was never heard or explained by any one. But now the literature on executive pastor is easily available as many researchers worked on it and contributed their knowledge to clear the role and need of executive pastor.
A significant work on formal church staffing was Marvin Judys The Multiple Staff Ministry, published in 1969. Judy refers to an executive minister, but by this he simply means the senior pastor as the boss.14 Harold Westings Multiple Church Staff Handbook, (1985) does not mention the executive pastor. The second edition (1997) not only refers to the executive pastor, but also includes it in an evolutionary chart. (John Hawco)
According to John Hawco, Harold Westing in his book Multiple Church Staff Handbook explains in the chart that most of the ministerial staff was only contributing in pastoral care, music and education before 1970s. But after that the changes occur and amendments made in the ministry of church. Business Administration office builds inside the church which also includes the experts in different areas. After few years more services were added to it including executive pastor. They were continuously developing and organizing themselves as the world was becoming modernized.
The 1990s brought even more specialization that was further influenced by the corporate model, including media/communications, senior adults, and brokers.16 The last term may or may not be considered ministry staff. In addition, some parachurch organizations have created financial planning ministries. (John Hawco)
John t. Hawco (2005). The senior pastor/executive pastor team: A contemporary paradigm for the larger church staff. A project/dissertation submitted to the Faculty of covenant theological seminary in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of doctor of ministry St. Ouis, Missouri 2005.
Donald P. Smith. Empowering Ministry: Ways to Grow in Effectiveness.
Sue Mallory. The Equipping Church: Serving Together to Transform Lives.
http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=1cgfWpXBSrQC&oi=fnd&pg=PA9&dq=The+equipping+Church&ots=Qaau_Z9rTj&sig=vc9cspRFoDUpCGILO9PT_HsjyrM Accessed on June 1, 2007
EFFECTIVE LEADERSHIP the Art, Science, and Practice
http://www.1000ventures.com/business_guide/crosscuttings/leadership_main.html Accessed on June 1, 2007
Ingredients of leadership, The MGMA Connexion Find Articles
http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa4083/is_200402/ai_n9392758 Accessed on June 1, 2007
What is Leadership?
http://www.pinetreeweb.com/whatis.htm Accessed on June 1, 2007
http://www.psywww.com/sports/leader.htm Accessed on June 1, 2007
Dr. Wade H. Shaw, P.E. (2003) 2000/2001 President of the IEEE Engineering Management Society. 2003 IEEE Colloquia Tour.
(ewh.ieee.org/r9/panama/eventos/Wade.pdf) Accessed on June 1, 2007
Joe Bellefeuille, EMS BoG Member (2002) Engineering Management. IEEE Engineering
Management Society Newsletter. USPS 176-360 ISSN 1066-212X. Volume 52 Page No: 7 Fourth Quarter 2002.
www.ewh.ieee.org/soc/ems/EMnewsletter/02Q4.pdf Accessed on June 1, 2007
Donald Klingner; Reinventing Public Personnel Administration as Strategic Human Resource Management. Journal of Public Personnel Management, 1993. Volume: 22. Issue: 4 Page Number: 565+. Accessed on June 1, 2007
Stephen P. Robbins, Mary Coulter. Management. Seventh edition, Prentice Hall 2001. Accessed on June 1, 2007
Pawan S. Budhwar, Yaw A. Debrah; Routledge, 2001, Human Resource Management in Developing Countries. Routledge, London. Publication Year: 2001. Page Number: 9. Accessed on June 1, 2007
Lynda Gratton, Veronica Hope Hailey, Philip Stiles, Catherine Truss; Strategic Human Resource Management, Corporate Rhetoric and Human Reality. Oxford University Press. Place of Publication: Oxford. Publication Year: 1999 Accessed on June 1, 2007
Abraham K. Korman, Allen I. Kraut, Manuel London; Jossey-Bass, Evolving Practices in Human Resource Management: Responses to a Changing World of Work. Jossey-Bass. San Francisco 1999. Accessed on June 1, 2007