Travel is the movement of people or objects (such as airplanes, boats, trains and other conveyances) between relatively distant geographical locations. Travel can also include relatively short stays between successive movements.
The term travel originates from the Middle English word travail. The term also covers all the activities performed during a travel (movement). A person who travels is spelled traveler in the United States, and traveller in the United Kingdom.
Purpose and motivation
Reasons for traveling include recreation, tourism or vacationing, research travel for the gathering of information, for holiday to visit people, volunteer travel for charity, migration to begin life somewhere else, religious pilgrimages and mission trips, business travel, trade, commuting, and other reasons, such as to obtain health care or fleeing war. Travel may occur by human-powered transport such as walking or bicycling, or with vehicles, such as public transport, automobiles, trains and airplanes.
Motives to travel include pleasure, relaxation, discovery and exploration, getting to know other cultures and taking personal time for building interpersonal relationships. Travel may be local, regional, national (domestic) or international. In some countries, non-local internal travel may require an internal passport, while international travel typically requires a passport and visa. A trip may also be part of a round trip, which is a particular type of travel whereby a person moves from their usual residence to one or several locations and returns.
Its important to take precautions to ensure travel safety. When traveling abroad, the odds favor a safe and incident-free trip, however, travelers can be subject to difficulties, crime and violence. Some safety considerations include being aware of ones surroundings, avoiding being the target of a crime, leaving copies of ones passport and itinerary information with trusted people, obtaining medical insurance valid in the country being visited and registering with ones national embassy when arriving in a foreign country.
Many countries do not recognize drivers licenses from other countries; however most countries accept international driving permits. Automobile insurance policies issued in ones own country are often invalid in foreign countries, and its often a requirement to obtain temporary auto insurance valid in the country being visited. Its also advisable become oriented with the driving rules and regulations of destination countries. Wearing a seat belt is highly advisable for safety reasons and because many countries have penalties for violating seatbelt laws.
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2010, there were over 940 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2009. International tourism receipts grew to US$919 billion (euro 693 billion) in 2010, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 4.7%. As a result of the late-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months.
This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts. Tourism is vital for many countries, such as France, Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Israel, United States, Spain, Italy,and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji, Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs, hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls, music venues and theatres.
Theobald (1994) suggested that etymologically, the word tour is derived from the Latin, tornare and the Greek, tornos, meaning a lathe or circle; the movement around a central point or axis. This meaning changed in modern English to represent ones turn. The suffix ism is defined as an action or process; typical behaviour or quality, while the suffix, ist denotes one that performs a given action. When the word tour and the suffixes ism and ist are combined, they suggest the action of movement around a circle. One can argue that a circle represents a starting point, which ultimately returns back to its beginning. Therefore, like a circle, a tour represents a journey in that it is a round-trip, i.e., the act of leaving and then returning to the original starting point, and therefore, one who takes such a journey can be called a tourist.
In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity. In 1976, the Tourism Society of Englands definition was: Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes. In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. In 1994, the United Nations classified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: ¢ Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country. ¢ Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country. ¢ Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country.
World tourism statistics and rankings
Most visited countries by international tourist arrivals:
In 2010, there were 940 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 6.6% as compared to 2009.
The World Tourism Organization reports the following ten countries as the most visited by the number of international travellers. When compared to 2009, China surpassed Spain to become the third most visited country. Most of the top visited countries continue to be on the European continent, followed by a growing number of Asian countries.
Wealthy people have always travelled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baiae were popular coastal resorts for the rich. The word tourism was used by 1811 and tourist by 1840. In 1936, the League of Nations defined foreign tourist as someone travelling abroad for at least twenty-four hours. Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months.
Leisure travel was associated with the Industrial Revolution in the United Kingdom the first European country to promote leisure time to the increasing industrial population Initially, this applied to the owners of the machinery of production, the economic oligarchy, the factory owners and the traders. These comprised the new middle class. Cox & Kings was the first official travel company to be formed in 1758. The British origin of this new industry is reflected in many place names. In Nice, France, one of the first and best-established holiday resorts on the French Riviera, the long esplanade along the seafront is known to this day as the Promenade des Anglais; in many other historic resorts in continental Europe, old, well-established palace hotels have names like the Hotel Bristol, the Hotel Carlton or the Hotel Majestic reflecting the dominance of English customers. Many leisure-oriented tourists travel to the tropics, both in the summer and winter.
Places of such nature often visited are: Bali in Indonesia, Colombia, Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Malaysia, Mexico the various Polynesian tropical islands, Queensland in Australia, Thailand, Saint-Tropez and Cannes in France, Florida, Hawaii and Puerto Rico in the United States, Barbados, Sint Maarten, Saint Kitts and Nevis, The Bahamas, Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Turks and Caicos Islands and Bermuda.
Although it is acknowledged that the Swiss were not the inventors of skiing it is well documented that St. Moritz, Graub¼nden, became the cradle of the developing winter tourism: Since that year of 1865 in St. Moritz, many daring hotel managers choose to risk opening their hotels in winter but it was only in the seventies of the 20th century when winter tourism took over the lead from summer tourism in many of the Swiss ski resorts. Even in Winter, portions of up to one third of all guests (depending on the location) consist of non-skiers. Major ski resorts are located mostly in the various European countries (e.g. Andorra, Austria, Bulgaria, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Czech Republic, France, Germany, Iceland, Italy, Norway, Poland, Serbia, Sweden, Slovenia, Spain, Switzerland), Canada, the United States (e.g. Colorado, California, Utah, Montana, Wyoming, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Vermont) New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, Chile, Argentina, Kenya and Tanzania.
Mass tourism could only have developed with the improvements in technology, allowing the transport of large numbers of people in a short space of time to places of leisure interest, so that greater numbers of people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time. In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York. In Continental Europe, early resorts included: Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais) and Deauville (Calvados) for the Parisians; and Heiligendamm, founded in 1793, as the first seaside resort on the Baltic Sea.
For a more comprehensive list, see List of adjectival tourisms. Adjectival tourism refers to the numerous niche or specialty travel forms of tourism that have emerged over the years, each with its own adjective. Many of these have come into common use by the tourism industry and academics. Others are emerging concepts that may or may not gain popular usage.
There has been an upmarket trend in the tourism over the last few decades, especially in Europe, where international travel for short breaks is common. Tourists have high levels of disposable income, considerable leisure time, are well educated, and have sophisticated tastes. There is now a demand for better quality products, which has resulted in a fragmenting of the mass market for beach vacations; people want more specialised versions, quieter resorts, family-oriented holidays or niche market-targeted destination hotels. The developments in technology and transport infrastructure, such as jumbo jets, low-cost airlines and more accessible airports have made many types of tourism more affordable. As of April 28, 2009 The Guardian article notes that, the WHO estimates that up to 500,000 people are on planes at any time. There have also been changes in lifestyle, such as retiree-age people who sustain year round tourism.
This is facilitated by internet sales of tourism products. Some sites have now started to offer dynamic packaging, in which an inclusive price is quoted for a tailor-made package requested by the customer upon impulse. There have been a few setbacks in tourism, such as the September 11 attacks and terrorist threats to tourist destinations, such as in Bali and several European cities. Also, on December 26, 2004, a tsunami, caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, hit the Asian countries on the Indian Ocean, including the Maldives. Thousands of lives were lost and many tourists died. This, together with the vast clean-up operation in place, has stopped or severely hampered tourism to the area. The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.
Sustainable tourism is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. (World Tourism Organization) Sustainable development implies meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) Sustainable tourism can be seen as having regard to ecological and socio-cultural carrying capacities and includes involving the community of the destination in tourism development planning. It also involves integrating tourism to match current economic and growth policies so as to mitigate some of the negative economic and social impacts of mass tourism. Murphy (1985) advocates the use of an ecological approach, to consider both plants and people when implementing the sustainable tourism development process.
This is in contrast to the boosterism and economic approaches to tourism planning, neither of which considers the detrimental ecological or sociological impacts of tourism development to a destination. However, Butler (2006) questions the exposition of the term sustainable in the context of tourism, citing its ambiguity and stating that the emerging sustainable development philosophy of the 1990s can be viewed as an extension of the broader realization that a preoccupation with economic growth without regard to it social and environmental consequences is self-defeating in the long term. Thus sustainable tourism development is seldom considered as an autonomous function of economic regeneration as separate from general economic growth.
Ecotourism, also known as ecological tourism, is responsible travel to fragile, pristine, and usually protected areas that strives to be low impact and (often) small scale. It helps educate the traveler; provides funds for conservation; directly benefits the economic development and political empowerment of local communities; and fosters respect for different cultures and for human rights.
The pro poor tourism has to help the very poorest in developing countries has been receiving increasing attention by those involved in development and the issue has been addressed either through small scale projects in local communities and by Ministries of Tourism attempting to attract huge numbers of tourists. Research by the Overseas Development Institute suggests that neither is the best way to encourage tourists money to reach the poorest as only 25% or less (far less in some cases) ever reaches the poor; successful examples of money reaching the poor include mountain climbing in Tanzania or cultural tourism in Luang Prabang, Laos.
Recession tourism is a travel trend, which evolved by way of the world economic crisis. Identified by American entrepreneur Matt Landau (2007), recession tourism is defined by low-cost, high-value experiences taking place of once-popular generic retreats. Various recession tourism hotspots have seen business boom during the recession thanks to comparatively low costs of living and a slow world job market suggesting travelers are elongating trips where their money travels further.
When there is a significant price difference between countries for a given medical procedure, particularly in Southeast Asia, India, Eastern Europe and where there are different regulatory regimes, in relation to particular medical procedures (e.g. dentistry), traveling to take advantage of the price or regulatory differences is often referred to as medical tourism.
Educational tourism developed, because of the growing popularity of teaching and learning of knowledge and the enhancing of technical competency outside of the classroom environment. In educational tourism, the main focus of the tour or leisure activity includes visiting another country to learn about the culture, such as in Student Exchange Programs and Study Tours, or to work and apply skills learned inside the classroom in a different environment, such as in the International Practicum Training Program.
Creative tourism has existed as a form of cultural tourism, since the early beginnings of tourism itself. Its European roots date back to the time of the Grand Tour, which saw the sons of aristocratic families traveling for the purpose of mostly interactive, educational experiences. More recently, creative tourism has been given its own name by Crispin Raymond and Greg Richards, who as members of the Association for Tourism and Leisure Education (ATLAS), have directed a number of projects for the European Commission, including cultural and crafts tourism, known as sustainable tourism. They have defined creative tourism as tourism related to the active participation of travellers in the culture of the host community, through interactive workshops and informal learning experiences.
Meanwhile, the concept of creative tourism has been picked up by high-profile organizations such as UNESCO, who through the Creative Cities Network, have endorsed creative tourism as an engaged, authentic experience that promotes an active understanding of the specific cultural features of a place. More recently, creative tourism has gained popularity as a form of cultural tourism, drawing on active participation by travelers in the culture of the host communities they visit. Several countries offer examples of this type of tourism development, including the United Kingdom, the Bahamas, Jamaica, Spain, Italy and New Zealand.
One emerging area of special interest has been identified by Lennon and Foley (2000) as dark tourism. This type of tourism involves visits to dark sites, such as battlegrounds, scenes of horrific crimes or acts of genocide, for example: concentration camps. Dark tourism remains a small niche market, driven by varied motivations, such as mourning, remembrance, education, macabre curiosity or even entertainment. Its early origins are rooted in fairgrounds and medieval fairs.]
Also known as Tourism of Doom, or Last Chance Tourism this emerging trend involves traveling to places that are environmentally or otherwise threatened (the ice caps of Mount Kilimanjaro, the melting glaciers of Patagonia, The coral of the Great Barrier Reef) before it is too late. Identified by travel trade magazine TravelAge West editor-in-chief Kenneth Shapiro in 2007 and later explored in The New York Times, this type of tourism is believed to be on the rise. Some see the trend as related to sustainable tourism or ecotourism due to the fact that a number of these tourist destinations are considered threatened by environmental factors such as global warming, over population or climate change. Others worry that travel to many of these threatened locations increases an individuals carbon footprint and only hastens problems threatened locations are already facing.
Since the late 1980s, sports tourism has become increasingly popular. Events such as rugby, Olympics, Commonwealth games, Asian Games and football World Cups have enabled specialist travel companies to gain official ticket allocation and then sell them in packages that include flights, hotels and excursions.
Introduction to Market Segmentation
For more than 25 years segmentation has been proclaimed to be the cornerstone of successful marketing. Ever since the publication of Theodore Levitts seminal text, The Marketing Imagination in 1983, segmentation has continued to be promoted as the sine qua non of successful marketing. Levitts original assertion that if youre not thinking segments, youre not thinking marketing has clearly stood the test of time. Put simply, segmentation is critical to competitive advantage and should underpin every decision that needs to be made about all aspects of the tourism marketing mix. A real tourism marketing strategy needs to start with the tourist visitor, not the destination or product. It is clear that the visitor market, by definition, is not homogenous and every visitor or potential visitor does not want the same thing.
This immediately gives rise to a segmentation issue. The recognition that the needs and requirements of the visitor market are heterogeneous rather than homogenous should then become the starting point in developing value propositions that are unambiguously targeted at distinct and identifiable groups of visitors who are all similarly motivated in their decision to visit a destination. Implementing a tourism marketing plan based on needs-based segmentation is difficult, but not impossible. Yet, many destinations have still not developed effective segmentation strategies, largely because many of the conventional techniques are no longer suitable for an increasingly sophisticated, discerning and fragmented tourism market.
Understanding the concept of market segmentation is essential to hospitality marketing. Marketers first segment the market prior to selecting specific target markets for their hospitality establishment. Market segmentation is the act of dividing a market into distinct and meaningful groups of buyers who might merit separate products and/or marketing mixes. Once careful thought has gone into market segmentation, marketers can then identify primary (and secondary) markets they wish to target.
A major assumption in the practice of market segmentation is that the marketplace is comprised of heterogeneous groups of buyers, i.e., different groups of people have different needs and wants and, thus, are attracted to different product offerings accordingly. In hospitality, the purpose of the trip is a starting point for the segmentation process. We need to first consider whether people are primarily travelling for business purposes or for leisure purposes. Within each of these categories segments emerge. The following discussion highlights some of these major segments that marketers target in hospitality.
The business travel segment
The business traveler is looking for efficiency and effectiveness in a timely manner to conduct business away from home base. Major segments in business travel include individual, corporate, and the conference and convention market. Individual business travelers are essentially entrepreneurs who travel to conduct business on their own behalf. Independent business professionals such as lawyers, accountants, doctors, contractors, consultants, and the like (i.e., people who do not work in the corporate environment), are typically categorized in this market segment. They are the sole decision-maker on when, where, and how they travel to conduct their personal business. Whether these individuals operate a small- or medium-sized business, the specific purpose of the trip will impact their choice of budget, midscale, or upscale accommodations. It should be noted that the term FIT, or free independent traveler, is often used to identify this market.
However, the FIT nomenclature does not clearly distinguish the important difference between businesses versus leisure travel. Individual corporate travelers are those who travel to conduct business for the corporation with which they are employed. This normally implies that they are traveling on their own and not involved with group activity. Many large corporations have travel departments who make many, if not most, of the travel and accommodation decisions for their traveling employees. Indeed, travel managers for these types of corporations are a segment in themselves and are often targeted by the large chain hotel companies that seek business clientele. Similar to the individual traveler, the specific purpose of the trip, such as a sales appointment with a potential client or an intra-company business appointment, will help determine the type of accommodation they require. In other words, all business travelers are not necessarily in the same market segment.
It all comes down to the particular purpose of the trip being planned. The conference and convention market (also referred to as the meetings market) is another major segment in business travel. These are group events where people gather for a common business purpose. Conference implies smaller groups of, say, 50150 persons, where as convention normally suggests groups of 200 attendees. Major players include associations and corporations. Associations are organizations that are formed to serve the common interests of its membership. CHRIE, or the Council of Hotel, Restaurant, and Institutional Education, for example, is an association made up of hospitality and tourism educators.
The CHRIE annual convention is held each summer in alternating cities throughout North America. Each year the specific location is chosen by the CHRIE executive committee and members of the association can choose (or not choose) to attend the convention in any given year. Corporations hold a multitude of conferences and conventions throughout the year for varying reasons, including regional and national sales meetings, training seminars, new product introductions, etc.
Selection of personnel to attend these meetings is at the discretion of the individual organizing the event, and attendance is very often mandatory. People who plan the logistics for an event (who may or may not be the person organizing the meeting, its agenda, goals, etc.) are called meeting planners. They may work directly for the organization or may be independent contractors. Outsourcing meeting planning to independent meeting planners is becoming more pronounced in todays business environment.