Apart from physical surveillance, other types of surveillance exist, for example communications surveillance exists which include mail covers and phone interception (Bogonikolos). Another type of surveillance is known as data surveillance or Dataveillance which involves the systematic use of personal data systems to monitor actions and communications of people and suspects. It is less expensive than physical and electronic surveillance because of the automation features it has.
Dataveillance may be personal or mass. Personal dataveillance occurs where a person has been identified as a suspect or is of particular interest while a large group of people are monitored in mass Dataveillance. This mass dataveillance is done to protect the entire population and to deter people from causing harm to others. Tools and Techniques of Surveillance Dataveillance Techniques are used for checking data to make sure that it conforms to certain standards and specifications.
Front-end verification (FEV) is a method of data surveillance that involves checking the information supplied by an applicant with other additional sources of information about that person in order to identify discrepancies (Bogonikolos). When front-end verification is applied to everybody, mass dataveillance is said to have taken place. Mass dataveillance is a continuous process that involves the following: authentication and screening of all transactions, audit of individuals, and the profiling of persons and transactions to identify possible threats of terrorism.
Mechanisms that may be used to achieve this include computer data matching, in which personal records are compared and analyzed. These methods may however result in the black listing people that may be innocent. Data surveillance is cost-effective. Physical surveillance is expensive because it requires many resources. Surveillance attempts to track what people do, say and where they go (Bogonikolos). Visual Surveillance Closed-Circuit TV (CCTV) is one of the most common electronic techniques of visual surveillance.
CCTVs may be deployed on roads, railway stations, ATMS, petrol stations, lifts, lobbies and areas that are easily prone to attack. Recording may be done in real-time or time-lapse mode. Cameras may also be used and this is extremely portable. Video Surveillance can help to reduce the risk of attack, protect citizens form attack, monitor crime and subsequently gain crucial evidence that may lead to the identification and prosecution of suspects. Cameras may also be deployed in a covert manner so that people are not aware that it exists (Bogonikolos).