[Peter Katel 393-420]. America can be called as land of immigration and even today, over 43 million American still claim German ancestry and 34 million claim Irish roots. Americas first wave of immigration was principally drawn from western and northern Europe Teutonic and Celtic in origin. However, starting in the 1870s, a substantial portion of Jewish, Latin, and Slavic peoples migrated to American shores and this group accounted for about 70% of the immigrant population in U. S. A. [Msaci 921-944].
After the 9/11 attack, US immigration policy has been tightened. In US, immigration policy has always been a contentious subject. [David Merchant 287]. It is estimated that more than 10 million illegal immigrants reside in the United States and about 1500 illegal immigrants mainly from Mexico are illegally entering into the US on daily basis. [Peter Katel 393]. According to U. S Mexico Studies center at the University of Texas at Dallas, it would be very difficult to perform many jobs in USA if undocumented peoples from Mexico are not there.
. [Peter Katel 393-420]. This research essay mainly researches into the issue of immigration. Between the USA and the Mexico and what are the similarities and the differences between them in detail. 2. ANALYSIS: According to U. S-Mexico relations center at the University of California, the U. S economy would not come to a halt without illegal immigrants but at the same time, they are significant to some specific industries. [Peter Katel 393-420]. In the year 1940s, United States loosened up its immigration policies mainly for political and economic reasons.
In the year 1942 , mainly to relax shortage of wartime labor shortages and to partly to authorize and control the flow of Mexican agricultural employees into the USA and initiated the guest worker program namely Bracero which implies workers in Spanish as it permitted employees from the Caribbean and the Mexico mainly to pick crops in Western states of USA. [Peter Katel 393-420]. In 1952, US enacted a law which contained a gaping loophole the Texas Proviso- a transparent concession to safeguard agricultural interests of Texas that depended on cheap labour flow from Mexico. [Peter Katel 393-420].
In 1986, due to heightening of economic crisis in Mexico, about 1. 7 millions crossed the Mexican border and landed in the US. It is to observed that illegal immigration from Mexico could not be stopped even after 9/11 attack and it is estimated that about 58% of illegal immigrants in USA are emerging from Mexico. [Peter Katel 393-420]. Further , the provision in the immigration law of US as regards to the family-reunification has made the Mexico as the leading country as about 116,000 of the total 706,000 legal immigrants in the fiscal year 2002-2003 accounted from Mexico alone. [Peter Katel 393-420].
Further, North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement [NAFTA] did not generate sufficient jobs in Mexico to keep away Mexicans from migrating to USA. Further, the Immigration Enforcement Improvement Act of 1996 did not reduce the flow of illegal immigrants into the USA. If political unrest in Mexico continues then it would spiral the illegal immigration into USA both under economic and political causes. [Peter Katel 393-420]. To curb the illegal immigration from Mexico, some critics have suggested for the introduction of Real ID Act, which would institute national drivers licence criterions and to complete the fencing of U.
S Mexican border near San Diego at faster speed. [Peter Katel 393-420]. Critics vehemently argue that illegal immigrants from Mexico have stolen the Americans jobs considerably , chance of inflicting non-English speaking menace to American culture , ruining the robust American economy and causing overall threat to national security . Some critics have opined that by allowing illegal immigrants in American soil , poverty is being imported by millions on every year basis. [Peter Katel 393-420].
However, the Mexican illegal immigrants in the USA are being considered as heroes in their homeland as they braved death in desert while crossing the border and undertook dangerous jobs in service and construction industry to support their families at home. It is estimated that more than 3,000 Mexicans have lost their life between 1996 and 2004 while crossing the US-Mexican border . However, those who successfully crossed the border and find employment in the US were mobilized about $16 billion during 2006 alone to their motherland which formed the third largest source of revenue in the Mexican budget.
[Peter Katel 393-420]. In 2004 alone, it was estimated that about 4,500 illegal immigrants from Mexico were mistreated or injured by anti-immigrants activists or by Border Patrol agents of USA. Anti-immigrants activists are of the view that illegal immigrants are draining the coffers by way of education, health care and social services and also responsible for gang-oriented crime. [Peter Katel 393-420]. The Bushs new immigration bill stipulates that the employer should insist from the employee before offering employment for his US passport or secure Social Security card or drivers license.
[Peter Katel 393-420]. As a measure to legalize the illegal immigrants living in USA, the proposed bill suggests that such aspirants have to demonstrate that they are living in US since earlier 1st January, 2007 onwards and these people are entitled to claim a special probationary status right away. This process permits them to stay and work in the USA legally. [Peter Katel 393-420]. Further , Bush new immigration policy also have allocated more than 380,000 green cards with permanent legal resident status mainly to attract skilled , highly talented who are needed in US job market each year.
Further, these green cards are awarded on a point system where preference for siblings and adult children would be abolished. [Peter Katel 393-420]. Another special feature of Bush immigrant policy is that it offers opportunity to more than 200,000 foreign workers on temporary basis to work in the USA under guest-worker program. However, it is to be noted there is no cap on the visas to be issued to agriculture workers in USA. According to US Commerce department, the number of Americans at prime working age group between 25 and 54 is constantly growing at a phase of 0.
2% per year while at the same time, the job market in the US is growing at the phase of 1. 2% per annum. [Peter Katel 393-420]. Some are of the view that liberal immigration policy will result in unemployment problems and an escalation in crime rates. Further, illegal immigration from neighboring countries like Cuba, Mexico is on the rise and has created law and order problem in U. S like operation of street gangs, drug trafficking, armed robbery etc. According to United States Census Bureau , there were nearly a third of the 35 million foreign born population of the United States is from Mexico.
On realizing the severity of the illegal immigration, California State has enacted strict laws to crack down illegal immigrants. It has also initiated preventive measures like increasing the number of border guards, cautious to grant political asylum etc. One of the arguments against liberal immigration policy is that citizen workers who are hailing from racial and ethnic minorities are at greater disadvantage due to illegal immigrations. Further, the presence of illegal workers in large numbers makes it extremely difficult to unionize workers in secondary labor markets.
Definitely illegal immigration will definitely have its impact on the poor citizens in the United States. [Merchant, David 287]. One of the recommended solutions to the immigration issue is that to have much stricter immigration laws and enforcement mingled with the economic aid to Mexico to develop its northern Border States and free trade in goods and services. According to Veblen, international borders, restrictions on migration and all types of nationalism act as a blockade to maintain industrial efficiency.
Further, technology revolution is a global phenomenon and it is to be observed that no civilized countrys industrial structure will work in isolation. [Veblen, 1918]. According to Wendell Gordon, U. S should adopt a more open border policy and U. S todays economic development may be attributed to its liberal immigration policy as liberal immigration policy has helped to achieve economic development process. Gordon was not agreeing to the idea of that Mexico tops the illegal immigration in U. S. A. According to the available data in 1973, there were about 3 million illegal immigrants who had entered into U. SA.
Gordon doubted about the accuracy of this data as Mexican population would have augmented by 8. 6% if Mexico had actually exported to U. S in a single year. [Gordon, 1975]. Gordon was also against the view that illegal migrants were robbing the job from U. S workers. But according to Briggs, immigration policy should be evaluated mainly on labor market consideration. Briggs was of the view that colossal inflow of illegal immigrants is making serious interferences in the normal labor market adjustment processes. [Briggs, 1975]. Between January 2000 and March ,2005 , there was an increase in the estimated 7.
9 million new immigrants both legal and illegal which amounted the highest ever five year period in American history almost surpassing the peak 10 year period between 1900-1909. How U. S has benefited from immigration can be illustrated by the following illustration. Adam and Balfour have won the coveted Louis Brown low Award of the National Academy of Public Administration (1998) and Best Book Award of the Academy of Management in the same year for their book Unmasking Administrative Evil and have cited how SS-supplied slaves were used for building V2 rockets by Germans.
Thus, slaves with technical skills from the camp Mittelbau-Dora were supplied for Mittel work factory. It was said that though they built around 6000 rockets in a period of two years but more than 20,000 deaths were reported. Thus human deaths by accident while making the rocket surpassed the number of rockets actually produced! The project leader Von Braun and about 120 members were whisked off to US, though nearly 50% of them were Nazi party members while other Nazi members of rocket factory were tried after the war.
This Nazi project team was given protection in US, their erstwhile records were destroyed and finally they were sanitized. Later, they were made in-charges of US missile program and equipped US in facing threats from the USSR in the cold war era. The two roles played by Von Braun was highlighted in the book . One as the project leader in Nazis camps and wielding his powers in the business of making missiles and the other being his role in US by equipping it with latest missiles to protect against it from USSR threats.
Thus, the main purpose of the system rather than its administrative evil would have to be viewed. Due to alarming immigration to US from other countries, U. S government was forced to enact Immigration Act as early as 1907. It was again amended in 1917. In 1921 and 1924, amendments were introduced through immigration bills. The number of immigrants was only around three million in 1986 and liberal immigration policy allowed to swell to twelve million in 2006. The Immigration and Naturalization Services function and responsibilities changed under the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986.
This law, signed under President Regan, also allowed a certain number of aliens living in America legally, permitted to become legal resident of U. S. However, the immigrants in USA and their supporters vehemently oppose the Bush governments following moves to streamline the illegal immigrations in the country. ? To remove the proposed legislation to impose a fine of $ 5000 on illegal immigrants who look for legal status in the US. ? To abolish the proposed legislative provision as regards to necessitate guest-workers to go back to their home country for a year for every two years employed in the US.
? To desist to offer more priority in according legal status to highly qualified, skilled and well-educated immigrants in preference to those who have their family in the US. [Fidel V. Ramos NA]. However, both U. S and Mexican government has realized the significance of flow illegal immigrants from Mexico to U. S and have initiated voluntary repatriation program mainly to deport such illegal immigrants to Mexico from U. S. [Peter Katel 393-420]. Mexicos new charisma leader Mr. Vincente Fox has sought amnesty for some undocumented Mexicans working in the US and it seems that Bush is enthusiastic to consider the same.
It is being argued by immigrant rights advocates and American labor unions are of the opinion that Mexican workers in U. S offer invaluable labor and their rights should be safeguarded by removing the fear of deportation. Thus, the two leaders are trying to resolve many burning issues between them which include an American appreciation of Mexican attempts to desist drugs from entering the US from Mexican soil and the effect of the NAFTA on Mexican developing economy. [Msaci 921-944]. NAFTA had eliminated trade barriers between the Mexico and the US and helped the Mexican economy to grow.
This has paved the way for the Mexicans to stay in the home instead of illegally immigrating to the US in search of jobs. Supporters of the NAFTA have demonstrated by showing impressive development in Mexicos gross domestic product [GDP] since its introduction. [Msaci 921-944]. However, NAFTA critics were of the opinion that tens of thousands of small and medium-sized business into bankruptcy, resulting mass unemployment among Mexicans and it was further argued that Purchasing power parity of the average Mexican has dwindled than before the implementation of NAFTA treatment.
[Msaci 921-944]. Some critics argue that Mexico will never be decertified since minimizing U. S support would destroy one of USAs most significant associates. In July 2007, Bush made a statement that he wishes to legalize almost 3 million Mexicans residing illegally in the USA. [Msaci 921-944]. CONCLUSION: It appears that current U. S immigration laws does not satisfy any one and there is lack of enforcement as it is evidenced from employer sanctions which was first enacted into law with the passage of the Immigration Reform and Control Act [ ICRA] of 1986.
Congress debates on immigrant issues always centers around stricter enforcement, laying of fence along the border, ways and means to legalize various undocumented workers and to augment the free flow of workers. The Congress is more concerned with the illegal migration from Mexico and possible effect on the labor market. Further, the current proposals are emotionally attached to homeland security issues. Since U. S is actively engaged in globalization process, market-oriented mainstream economics can only substantiate open borders.
Any impediments on capital, trade or labor mobility are inconsistent with the narrowly defined conventional conceptions of efficiency. Redefining the immigration debate in terms of dynamic economic process and economic development would be a significant milestone in developing a momentous approach to immigration issues. It is to be noted that both the Gordon and Galbraith argued that migration was a key component in the economic development process. Unless American leaders concur to scrutinize immigration in view of its historic record and present state of health, it will prolong the countrys most unsettled and misunderstood issue.