Conversely, a consumer can sue the supplier of the product if there was a lack of adequate warning labels or if it was defective. The duty to provide adequate warning requires that the consumer receive notice of potential dangers associated with the product including potential consequences associated with misuses. It is important that the consumer to be able to see the warning sign so it is best to provide warnings directly on the product and if such placement is not feasible the warning needs to be placed in the instructions.
According to the guidelines for the design of warning signs of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Z535 standard, warning signs should include a signal word, additional information and/or symbols. Signal words, specifically, have three degrees: Danger, which indicates an imminently hazardous situation that, if not avoided, will result in death or serious injury; Warning, which indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, also could result in death or serious injury; and Caution which indicates a potentially hazardous situation which, if not avoided, may result in minor or moderate injury.
Additional information should also include what is hazardous and what the potential consequences are if the hazard is not properly controlled; and, more importantly, what actions should the users take so as to prevent the serious hazard(s). Note: only symbols that have been tested should be used. Symbols are especially preferred especially when many of the users might not be able to read English. Consider the following example in regards to the multitude of hazards associated with common chainsaw: ¢ Kickback hazards often occur with the use of chainsaw.
Kickbacks occur when the nose (tip) of the blade contacts with a solid object and the chainsaw operator did not properly grip the chainsaw. This may cause the saw to strike back in the direction of the user or render the saw uncontrollable. A kickback will more likely occur due to a loose or by a slow chain so regular maintenance is required. ¢ Hearing loss could occur due to regular use of the chainsaw. The loudness of the operating chainsaw can cause to injury to users hearing. Maintenance should be done regularly to reduce the noise.
Among those items listed above, a kickback hazard will be selected and an appropriate design constructed for the warning sign. I selected a chainsaws kickback as an example because of the serious injury a chainsaw can cause, a danger that is magnified by peoples seeming disinterest in the subject. The probability of injury due to kickback remains high because a kickback can occur if the chain suddenly hits a solid object; and this can force the saw backward and upward sending it directly into the flesh of the user. Since the force derived from the kickback is so strong, injury could hardly be avoided.
The seriousness of injury derived from the kickback is high because it could result in death. The number of people that can be injured is low because few people these days use chainsaws, but only few people whose job requires use of a chainsaw. Objective After finding out all foreseeable hazards related to chainsaw operation, a warning sign will be designed to effectively warn and inform the user of the most serious hazardous conditions associated with chainsaw use, specifically, the injury from its kickback blade. Drawing of Warning Sign Detailed Description of Warning Sign This warning sign has followed The US ANSI Z535. 4 Standards.
The signal word that is used here is WARNING which indicates potentially hazardous situations that, if not avoided, could result in death or serious injury. In this case, kickback hazard can happen if the user uses the chainsaw improperly by connecting the tip of the saw to any solid object. Those unaware of this risk can cause serious injury or even death to the user. The message herein is very clear, readable, easily understandable, concise and comprehensible. The message is complete because it clearly states the hazard known as a kickback hazard and mentions what action should be taken to avoid or prevent the hazard.
In addition, the message does not contain any negative words or phrases start with Do NOT enter¦ In a case where people are under stress, they will only see the word enter, so this warning phrase become useless. Thus, the designed warning sign does not contain any negative words. Also, the symbol is easily understandable and expresses a message without the use of words as it represents a result of not avoiding a hazard. The signal word also follows the color recommended by ANSI for use with a warning sign and with an orange background color and a black font color.
It is imperative that this warning sign placement be eye-catching and clear. It would be more beneficial to be place the warning on the guard of the chainsaw blade or possibly on top of the engine. This way, the users will always look at the warning sign while holding the chainsaw. Additionally, the material of this warning sign should be very durable, long lasting and able to resist any environmental challenges. A great example would be a metal plate bolted directly to the chainsaw. To make sure the label is solid, it could be laminated so that the color and writings will not distort.
The material could also utilize a very durable sticker that has very strong adhesive ability. FMEA Analysis FMEA analysis on pressure cooker Assumption for severity, occurrences, and detection The purpose of a lid clamp is to serve as a backup device in case there is a failure relating to the safety valve. (The lid clamp insures that pressure doesnt get released or plugged) If the lid-clamp fails to open at the intended pressure, the pressure could blow off of the lid creating an explosion resulting in a fatality or severe injury if the users are in close proximity.
In such an instance, the severity is very dangerous which is category 9. If the lid-clamp is damaged and remains open at a pressure below the intended pressure, thus, leaving the food undercooked it may cause no injuries to users or no product damage. Then, the severity is not dangerous which is category 1. However, the occurrence is very low for both cases which remain a 1 in order for the lid-clamp to fail, the safety valve needs to fail first. In order for the safety valve to fail, the pressure gauge will need to fail first.
Detection is very high (Category 2) because it is very easy for the user to know whether or not the lid-clamp is working properly. To prevent these potential failures, users must keep the pressures cooker clean all the time and check the pressure gauge frequently. Further tests should be conducted in order to test the frequency of these occurrences. The severity level can not be changed because if the pressure cooker blows off, it will create serious product damage and possibly severe injuries or fatalities. Besides the pressure gauge, detection displays could be very helpful to help said detection.