Major threats to wildlife
Major threats to wildlife can be categorized as below:
* Habitat loss: Fewer natural wildlife habitat areas remain each year. Moreover, the habitat that remains has often been degraded to bear little resemblance to the wild areas which existed in the past. * Climate change: Because many types of plants and animals have specific habitat requirements, climate change could cause disastrous loss of wildlife species. A slight insects are harmed and disturbed. Plants and wildlife are sensitive to moisture change so, they will be harmed by any change in moisture level. * Pesticides and toxic chemical: Widely used, making the environment toxic to certain plants, insects, and rodents. * Unregulated Hunting and poaching: Unregulated hunting and poaching causes a major threat to wildlife. Along with this, mismanagement of forest department and forest guards triggers this problem. * Natural phenomena: Floods, earthquakes, volcanoes, lightning, forest fires. * Pollution: Pollutants released into the environment are ingested by a wide variety of organisms. * Over-exploitation of resources: Exploitation of wild populations for food has resulted in population crashes (over-fishing, for example)
North American Model of Wildlife Conservation
The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation is considered to be one the most successful conservation models in world. It has its origins in 19th century conservation movements, the near extinction of several species of wildlife (including the American Bison) and the rise of sportsmen with the middle class. Beginning in the 1860s sportsmen began to organize and advocate for the preservation of wilderness areas and wildlife. The North American Model of Wildlife Conservation rests on two basic principles fish and wildlife are for the non-commercial use of citizens, and should be managed such that they are available at optimum population levels forever. These core principles are elaborated upon in the seven major tenets of the model.
Public trust doctrine
In the North American Model, wildlife is held in the public trust. This means that fish and wildlife are held by the public through state and federal governments. In other words, though an individual may own the land up which wildlife resides, that individual does not own said wildlife. Instead, the wildlife is owned by all citizens. With origins in Roman times and English Common law, the public trust doctrine has at its heart the 1842 Supreme Court ruling Martin V. Waddell.
Under the North American Model, the killing of game must be done only for food, fur, self-defense, and the protection of property (including livestock). In other words, it is broadly regarded as unlawful and unethical to kill fish or wildlife (even with a license) without making all reasonable effort to retrieve and make reasonable use of the resource. Wildlife as an international resource
As wildlife do exist only within fixed political boundaries, effective management of these resources must be done internationally, through treaties and the cooperation of management agencies.
The Wildlife Conservation Act was enacted by the Government of India in 1972. Soon after the trend of policy makers enacting regulations on conservation a strategy was developed to allow actors, both government and non-government, to follow a detailed framework to successful conservation. The World Conservation Strategy was developed in 1980 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) with advice, cooperation and financial assistance of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Wildlife Fund and in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco)
The strategy aims to provide an intellectual framework and practical guidance for conservation actions. This thorough guidebook covers everything from the intended users of the strategy to its very priorities and even a map section containing areas that have large seafood consumption therefore endangering the area to over fishing. The main sections are as follows: * The objectives of conservation and requirements for their achievement: 1. Maintenance of essential ecological processes and life-support systems. 2. Preservation of genetic diversity.
3. Sustainable utilization of species and ecosystems.
* Priorities for national action:
1. A framework for national and subnational conservation strategies. 2. Policy making and the integration of conservation and development. 3. Environmental planning and rational use allocation.
* Priorities for international action:
1. International action: law and assistance.
2. Tropical forests and drylands.
3. A global programme for the protection of genetic resource areas. Map sections:
1. Tropical forests
2. Deserts and areas subject to desertification.