In 334 B.C.E., outfitted with an army of 37,000 men, he invaded the Persian-ruled Asia Minor, thus beginning a series of campaigns lasting ten years. Although Alexanders first confrontation with the Persians almost cost him his life, he pulled out with a victory and by the following spring, the entire western half of the Asia Minor was in his control. By breaking down the power of Persia into a series of crucial battles such as the battles of Gaugamela and Issus, he then overthrew the Persian King Darius III and eventually conquered the rest of the Persian Empire. While founding the first of many cities, such as Alexandria, remaining Egypts and the Mediterranean worlds most important city, he was also named pharaoh of Egypt itself.
With his army demanding to turn back while marching east to conquer India, Alexander reluctantly turns around, leads them across southern Persia, only to have thousands of men succumb to death from the heat and dehydration. After arriving in Babylon with his remaining troops, Alexander continued planning more campaigns but exhausted from his wounds, fever and possibly excessive alcohol consumption died in 323 B.C.E. Alexander was made legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles and is prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures.
Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.), Wikipedia